GO.Ms.No.1825, G.A.D, (O & M) Depart., Dt:26-12-1959 | District Office Manual

Table of Contents(toc)

I. Introductory

1. A copy of this book will be supplied to every member of the establishment and he must make himself thoroughly conversant with the rules contained it. The plea of ignorance will never be accepted as an excuse for disobeying them. The Head each Section must see that every clerk in his Section knows and understands the rules, keeps his copy corrected up-to-date and hands it over to his successor on leaving the office.

II. Attendance

2. Hours of Attendance: All members of the establishment are expected to attend the office from 10.30 a.m. to 5.00 p.m. on all week days except recognised holidays. Heads of Sections must set an example to others by themselves attending office punctually. An interval of half an hour between 1.00 p.m. to 3.00 p.m. will be allowed for tiffin or lunch, but it should be taken within the office compound itself, clerks may leave their seats for tiffin or lunch by turns after making suitable arrangements and they should not all leave at the same time. (GO.Ms.No.1931, GA (Services-C) Department, dated 27th October, 1965 B.P. Press 8/65, dated 6th November, 1965).

The observance of the office hours referred to above should be vigorously insisted on and attendance outside the prescribed office hours should not be accepted as substitution or excuse. On new moon days, Hindu Members may attend office one hour late. On Friday Muslim members of the staff will be allowed TO BE ABSENT FROM DUTY between 1 and 2 p.m. to go to the mosque to say their Jumma prayers.

3. Attendance Register: -
An attendance register in the prescribed form will be kept in the custody of the Sarishtadar. Clerks must initial it as soon as they come to office. It will be closed 10 minutes after the office opens and will be laid before the Sarishtadar with the casual leave and late attendance reports.

4. Late attendance: -
If any clerk does not attend office punctually, the word "late" will be entered against his name in the column for that date; if he comes later on, the hour at which he arrives should be entered by the Sarishtadar. On the first of each month the attendance register will be submitted to the Collector. Forfeiture of a day's casual leave will ordinarily be the penalty· for every three day's late attendance without permission. The number of days casual leave so forfeited shall be deducted from the casual leave account.

The deduction shall be made from time to time during the calendar year deduction a day's casual leave after every 3 days of late attendance without permission whether it be within the same month or not. If in any case the casual leave has already been· exhausted the amount of casual leave which has to be forfeited by a defaulter should either be debited to compensatory leave account, if there is any such leave to his credit in the current year, or carried forward and debited to the next year's casual leave account.

(Board's L.Dis.C.6812/60, dated 20th January, 1961, G.O.Ms.No.156, G.A.D., dated: 6th February, 1961. B.P Press 3/61, dated: 12th February, 1961)

NOTE: A member of the staff be permitted to attend office late, for valid reasons, three times in a month provided the period of absence does not exceed one hour including the grace time of ten minutes. For every three subsequent occasions of the late attendance or less, during the month, one day's casual leave will be deducted from the casual leave account. The deduction shall be made from time to time during the calendar year for the late attendance without permission.

(i) Members of staff requiring permission to attend office late must apply for it beforehand whenever possible. Such permission to attend office late can be granted for one hour only. Any day on which a person attends office after 11.30 a.m. but before 2 p.m. either by overstaying the one hour's permission granted for attending office late or without permission, will be treated as half a day's casual leave. Attendance after 2.00 p.m. will be treated as full one day's casual leave. This will be in addition to any disciplinary action that might be taken for absence without leave. (GO.Ms.No.574, GA. (Ser.C.) Dept., dated 3-7-1971)

4-A. Member of the staff not to leave office during working hours: -
A member of the office establishment shall not leave the office during working hours without permission. Members of the case of late attendance. The period of absence in this case should not exceed one hour. The members of the staff may leave office with the specific prior permission of the competent authority. However, to avoid the tendency in the members of the staff from leaving office merely submitting applications for permission to leave office early without waiting to see whether the permission has been granted or not, such instant of leaving office will be treated as late attendance without permission for purpose of deduction from casual leave account, in addition to imposition of any penalty.

5. Work out of office hours and on holidays: -
Clerks are on no account to take papers out of the office in order to work at home; and work before or after office hours and especially by ai1ificial light is to be reduced to a minimum. As a general, work on Sundays and other holidays is prohibited, and no papers must be submitted to the Collector on these days except really urgent will be submitted on the day before such Sunday or holiday. In submitting papers to the Collector on such days the Sarishtadar must exercise the utmost discretion.

6. Urgent work on holidays: -
Proper arrangements will be made for the disposal of urgent work on holidays. Heads of branches may make their own arrangements in regard to this, but no clerk must be required to attend office on any holiday without adequate reason. For all holidays "tum lists" (showing which clerks have to attend each day) must be drawn up under the signature of the Huzur Sarishtadar. Care should be taken to distribute this work fairly, and if possible, no single clerk should be required to attend office on more than two days consecutively.

[NOTE: A Government servant on turn duty on a holiday may be granted a day's leave in lieu as compensatory leave. But not more than 10 such days of compensatory leave may be granted in a calendar year and no such compensatory leave can be taken after the expiry of six months from the public holidays for which it is substituted. Not more than seven such compensatory leave days may be accumulated and this limit can be reduced at the discretion of the Head of the Office - Added by GO.Ms.No.751, G.A.D., dated 26-8-1967]

7. Casual leave: -
Casual leave wil1 be granted under such rules and conditions as are laid down in Annexure VII to the Fundamental Rules and Paragraph 5 of Board's Standing Order No. 131. It will not be granted on vague and general grounds such as for "urgent private affairs" or for "a certain ceremony". The purpose for which leave is required must be stated definitely, but clerks should abstain from giving unsavoury medical particulars. Applications for leave (including extensions of leave) must be made, and orders on them obtained, before the leave is taken or the applicants is due to join duty. Absence in anticipation of sanction wil1 only be condoned if the necessity or the leave or extension could not have been foreseen. In such cases the nature of the sudden emergency must be definitely stated. Clerks disregarding this rule wil1 do so at their peril. When a c1erk goes on casual leave he must invariably hand over any office keys in his custody to the head of his Section. Applications from the Sarishtadar and Heads of Sections and the Collector's camp clerks, and from peons on duty with the Collector, will be submitted through the Gazetted Assistant to the Col1ector, will be submitted through the Gazetted Assistant to the Collector. Applications from peons must also pass through the daffadar, who will endorse on the application whether the applicant can be spared. The Gazetted Assistant will note on application whether the applicant is eligible for the leave. The applications of clerks in the Sarishtadar's Section will be submitted to the Sarishtadar, who will dispose of them after ascertaining whether the applicants are eligible for the leave. All other applications will be course open to any Collector to modify these arrangements as he may see fit.

8. Absence due to infectious disease: -
Whenever a case of cholera, smallpox or other infectious disease occurs at the dwelling of any clerk or peon, he must report the fact at once to the Sarishtadar by a verbal message-not in writing (as the written report might convey infection) send the Sarishtadar his keys and stay away from duty until further orders. The Sarishtadar will report such cases to the Collector and obtain his orders. In cases where no substitute is appointed and no extra cost to Government is involved, such absence will be treated as casual leave, but will not count against the maximum period of such leave admissible. If, however, a substitute is necessary, ordinary leave debitable to the leave debitable to the leave account of the Government servant sh0uld be granted. Disregard of this rule will be severely viewed, as imperilling the health of other members of the staff.

III. General Discipline etc.,

9. General: -
While in office, all members of the establishment must behave in a quiet and dignified manner. They must address other members of the establishment courteously. They must attend to their works and not waste their time. They must try to maintain perfect silence, and if they have occasion to talk, they must do so in- a low voice so as not to disturb others. They are particularly warned against the heinous offence of disturb others. They are particularly warned against the heinous offence of divulging (whether expressly marked confidential or not) that may have come to their knowledge in their official capacity. IF any vakil, petitioner or other private person applies to them for any such information, they will refer him politely to the Section Head concerned, if he is of the rank of a Deputy Tahsildar and above and if not, to the Sarishtadar, who will attend to the enquiries of the Public.

They must of course not accept any presents or remunerations from ant visitor, party or other person reporting to the office on business, not lay themselves under obligation to such persons in any other way. They must not have recourse to anonymous petitions or letters in order to ventilate their grievances or supposed petitions or letters in order to ventilate their grievances or supposed grievances. If any member of the office establishment thinks that he has any grievance, he may represent it to the Collector in person.

The Collector will be prepared to receive visitors who wish to see him on official matters on any office day during office hours; but if clerks and others wish to make representations about their claims to promotion and such matters, it is more convenient that they should do so in writing, when their contentions can be examined at leisure with reference to the records. Long-winded verbal representations are apt rather to confuse and irritate the officer addressed (who is unlikely to be able to remember all the circumstances of the case or to discuss it without records) than to benefit the person addressing him.

10. Tidiness and cleanliness of the office: -
A waste-paper box must be kept within a convenient distance of every member of the staff. Waste paper must be thrown into these and not on the floor. Stationery and records must be put away tidily in the clerk's almirahs, and not left lying on tables and on the tops of almirahs exposed to dust. All rubbish and obsolete forms or publications must be cleared away, not left to litter the office. The office and the Collector's rooms must be properly swept and dusted daily. The daffadar is responsible for seeing that this is done and neglect on his part in this respect will be severely punished. He must be at the office not later than 9.30.a.m. on every office day for this purpose.

IV. Origination of the office

11. Sections: -
The first step to be taken in order to introduce "Mr. Tottenham's system", into any office is to divide the office into convenient Sections and to draw up a clear distribution list-showing the Sections, the head of each Section, the clerks composing each Section and the subjects dealt with by each clerk. To each Section a Section letter will be assigned and to each group of subjects dealt with by a clerk a number will be allotted. A fair-copying and despatching Section must also be organised under a competent superintendent.

12. The Sarishtadar: -
(i) The Sarishtadar will exercise general supervision over the whole office both in regard to the despatch of business and in regard to discipline. The Collector will lay down definitely what officers may submit papers to him direct. Subject to such orders all papers dealt with in the Correspondence Branch must pass to the Collector through. the Sarishtadar. Even those officers who have been authorised to submit papers direct as a general rule must submit papers of special importance or difficulty through the Sarishtadar. Such officers must not be regarded as in any sense independent of the Sarishtadar nor can he disclaim responsibility in regard to their work or that of the clerks working under them. He must keep in touch with the work in all Sections of the Correspondence Branch make himself conversant with the more important files pending in each Section, and see that they in particular are not delayed.

(ii) He must periodically inspect the personal registers, and see that they are punctually, neatly and properly maintained. He must also see that heads of Sections do the same so far as their respective Sections are concerned. The Sarishtadar must check any tendency to delay and bring to the Collector's notice any serious delay or other irregularity, and any indication that any member of the establishment is obviously unsuited for his work. If a serious delay or other irregularity comes to light it is not a sufficient excuse for the Sarishtadar to say that he "repeatedly_ warned" the offender, or "urged him to deal promptly" with the file that has been delayed. It is the Sarishtadar's duty to report such matters to the Collector as soon as he finds that his own admonitions are not proving effective. Should he fail to do so he cannot be held to have discharged his responsibility.

(iii) The Sarishtadar must watch incoming reminders-especially those received from the Board and Government-and look into the cause of the delays that have evoked them. He must advise the other ministerial officers on difficult or intricate questions, should they seek or need his advice, and he is at liberty to note on any file should he consider it necessary to do so.

(iv) His responsibility extends to the fair-copying and despatching Section. He must examine the fair-copying and despatch register at frequent intervals and see that it is regularly and properly written up, and that there is not delay in this branch of the work. He will also from time to time examine the distribution register, and see that the clerks invariably and promptly acknowledged papers entered in it and enter the personal register numbers against them. He will also check the balance of stamps at intervals and see that the stamp account is properly maintained. It is his duty to see that the rules in this Manual and all office orders are strictly obeyed.

13. Heads of Sections: -
These officers have similar responsibilities in regard to their respective Sections, and the work of the clerks subordinate to them, to those imposed on the Sarishtadar in regard to the office as a whole, but naturally their responsibility is even greater.

V. The Office System – General Outline

14. Introductory: -
The term "office system" is here used to mean mainly the arrangements in regard to "routine work", i.e., to such branches of work as the opening, registering, indexing, fair-copying and despatching of correspondence, the receipt of papers into the record room, their arrangement there, their issue from there when required for reference, their destruction when no longer required and so on. The office system described is the "Tottenham system" which is a simplified and improved form of Dr.Macleane's "Disposal number system".

The main points in which it differs from the latter are that there is no disposal number or disposal register, but papers are arranged after disposal according to their "Current" number, the current register is also dispensed with the only personal registers are maintained; the index is written in duplicate, on slips which are filed on the loose-leaf system (for a note on the slip index and its advantages as compared with the card-index, see Appendix E); there is no despatch register, though the fair-copying register (the function of which is different from that which the old despatch register was supposed to fulfil) shows, among other things, the date of despatch; and lastly only papers of special value (as explained below) are entered in the distribution register, under the orders of the officer who opens the tappal. It is in fact open to the head of the office to dispense with the distribution register altogether, if he thinks fit to do so.

15. Unauthorised Registers: -
The registers to be maintained are specified in the following paragraphs. Except where a contrary is stated all the registers prescribed by the disposal number system are to be abolished. Heads of office are on no account to retain or re-introduce any of the old registers-or to introduce new registers or returns of any kind without the sanction of the Board or Government. Any registers or returns now existing in any office which have not been prescribed by the Board or Government are to be abolished forthwith. This prohibition applies equally to arrear list and the like.

16. Registers maintained: -
The following registers are maintained- (1) Distribution Register (Form I, Appendix B). The use of this has just been explained. Entries in it will be made only under the specific orders of the officer opening the "tappal" or mail, by the clerk then in attendance, who is called the tappal clerk. The entries are not likely ever to be numerous in the nature of the case. The only papers to be entered in it are those of the loss of which would be serious or inconvenient or might lead to something important being overlooked. To give a few examples, the following will be entered.

A Government Order, on an important subject on which specific action has to be taken, or calling for a report on an important subject, especially if it is urgent. Any letter or petition which suggests that there has been some serious official delay, irregularity or neglect, any file of original papers-for instance, a file submitted by any officer subordinate to the Collector in reporting on an appeal, etc.; plans, maps, and estimates, title deeds and similar documents. The criterion is: "Is the paper one that ant one is likely to want to make away with, or one that is irreplaceable or the loss of which though it is not irreplaceable would cause inconvenience, or draw down the censure of Government or the Board or Revenue?" If the answer to al1 these questions is "No" the paper is not likely to be one that need be entered in the distribution register.

17. Distribution Register: -
All that need be entered in the distribution register is sufficient particulars to enable the Communication to be identified. If it is an official communication, the designation of the officer from whom it comes, and his reference number with the date need alone be entered. If it is a letter from a non-official, his name, the number of the letter if it has one (which is not probable), and its date will usually be sufficient. If necessary, a few words indicating the subject may be sufficient. If necessary, a few words indicating the subject plans)","(title deeds)", should never be omitted. The tappal clerk will enter against each paper in the distribution register the letter of the Section to which the paper relates, and the number of the clerk concerned. The officer opening the tappal will initial the register after each batch of entries in it.

The tappal clerk is responsible for seeing that the clerk who has to deal with the paper acknowledges it in the distribution register, and also enters its serial number in the personal register, in the later to enable it to be traced more easily if necessary. On no account is a separate register to be maintained of all communications received by registered post. It does not follow that because a man thinks fit to send a communication by registered post it is of any importance applying the criteria laid down above. If it is, it will be entered in the distribution register. If it is not, no special precautions are required in regard to it. "Valuables", i.e., cash, notes, etc., having an actual monetary value, will be entered in the usual security register. Copy stamp papers will be entered in the copy application register. Valuables and copy stamps should not be entered in the distribution register.

18. Use of distribution Number as Reference Number: -
Sometimes papers that entered in the distribution register are at once sent out of the office again. For instance, a complete file of papers may be received from a Divisional Officer. This may be at once returned to him with a call for further information, or on the other hand it may have simply to be forwarded at once to the Board of Revenue. In either case, if there is no pending entry in the personal or Section register relating to the same file, there is no object in registering it further, it may be sent back or sent on marked "Distr.No.19."

19. Personal Registers: -
Each clerk will maintain a personal register, Form II, Appendix B. There will be one set of current numbers for all the Sections (see paragraph 20 below New Case Register). A number is assigned as stated above to each clerk and this clerk's number must be marked on all notes, drafts and references, after the Section Letter thus" No. A1-2260-20" where "A" is the Section Letter, "1" the Clerk's number, "2260" the "Current Number" in the personal register, and "20" the year. The clerk's numbers must not be marked on disposals-whether on the actual communications issued, or on the files themselves in the record room. The reason for this is that the clerk's number is merely intended to facilitate the distribution and tracing of pending correspondence. It is not intended to determine the position of the file in the records after disposal.

Note: -
(1) cases of the previous year remaining undisposed on the 1st of April should be entered in the pages at the commencement of the register, sufficient blank pages being left for the beginning of the year.

(2) When reminders are issued their dates would be entered in red ink in column 8 of the personal register.

20. New Case Register (Form-III, Appendix B):-
In order to avoid having as many series of current numbers as there are Sections which would be in many ways inconvenient, all new cases will be entered in the "New Case Register" separate new case registers must be maintained. for correspondence branch, magisterial branch and Treasury Deputy Collector's office. Nothing will be entered except the new case numbers, the number of the clerk who has to deal with each paper, and the initials of the record keeper when he receives the file after disposal.

Note: Cases of the previous year remaining undisposed on the 1st of April should be entered in the pages at the commencement of the register, sufficient number of pages being left blank for the purpose at the beginning of the year.

21. New and Old Cases: -
"New cases" means all papers that are not old cases. "Old cases" means replies to references previously issued, and papers which, though not replies to references, has for any reason to be filed in "Current" that are already pending. For instance, after correspondence had been begun with one officer on a certain subject, another officer might happen to address the Collector on the same subject. In this instance, the later communication, though not a reply to a reference from the Collector's office, would be an old case, not a new case.

If an old case is by mistake numbered as a new case all that has to be done as soon as the fact is noticed, is to enter the number of the old case against the new case number in the new case register, and also in the personal register if an entry has already been made there before the mistake is found out. The superfluous entry in the personal register will thus be closed. Of course, the paper must also be entered against the old case to which it belongs in the appropriate column of the personal register (column 9 "reply or fresh current received").

22. Fair-Copy Register (Form IV Appendix B): -
This is maintained in the current Section. It is the business of the Superintendent, Fair-Copying Section, to see that the current number with the date of approval of each draft sent to be fair-copied, is at once entered in the register, and that the dates on which it is given to the typist, returned to the Superintendent, signed and despatched, are promptly and correctly entered in the appropriate columns of this register. No other despatch register is to be maintained for communications to be sent by post. The old despatch register maintained under the disposal number system was of no use whatever either to prevent the loss of papers or to fix responsibility for such loss, while its maintenance involved a great deal of writing and merely delayed despatch.

23. Despatch by Post and Local Delivery book (C.F. 61- Revised): -
This is to be used only for communications to be delivered by hand. The several columns of the register explain themselves. Column-3 of the register need not be filled up in offices in which the fair copy register is being maintained.

(1) Stamp Account (Form V, Appendix B): -
In this is entered the total value of the stamps on each batch of letters sent to the post, and the total daily expenditure and balance at the end of the day. The Superintendent, Fair Copying Section, is responsible for the correctness of the entries and of the balance. No attempt is to be made to enter the value of the stamps affixed to each letter, as was done in the old despatch register. This is a mere waste of time. Such entries are never likely to be accurate, and there is no possible means of checking them. Hence there is no use in making them.

(2) Periodical Register:
In regard to this see paragraph 70- "Periodicals" below.

(3) Call Book:
In regard to this, see the Section "Disposals" below.

(4) Security Register:
This will be maintained in Form XV of Appendix B. Valuables such as cash, notes, etc., having an actual monetary value will be entered in this register.

(5) Copy Application Register:
This register should be maintained in the form prescribed in Board's Standing Order No. 173, paragraph 8. Copy stamp papers received with copy applications and cash for the purchase of copy stamp papers should be entered in this register and not in the security register.

(6) Record Issue Register:
This register should be maintained in Form No. XIV of Appendix B. Separate registers must be maintained for Correspondence Branch, Magisterial Branch of the Collector's Office and also Treasury Deputy Collector's office to facilitate quick issue and replacement of records.

(1) Government Suits Register: -
A special register in Form VIII-A in Appendix B should be maintained to watch execution proceedings in Government suits and the instructions in paragraph 6 of Board's Standing Order No. 95 should be followed.

(2) Pauper Suits Register: -
A register in Form -VITI-B in Appendix B should be maintained in the case of pauper suits. When a pauper suit decree is received from the Court it should be first entered in the New case register and a New Case number assigned to it. Necessary entries should be made at the same time in this special register also. The current will be finally closed when the amount is, recovered or written off. The columns in the special register should be duly filled up then and there so as to facilitate the preparation of the quarterly return referred to in paragraph 107 of the Stamp Manual.

(3) Register of immovable properties purchased by Government in Civil Court Sales: -
This should be maintained in the collector's Office in Form VIII-C with an entry in the office list of periodicals to watch annually the steps taken for the disposal of such property according to the instructions in B.P.No. 1147, Mis., dated 11th April, I 934, noted in Appendix B, as subsequently amended.

VI. Opening the Tappal

It is desirable that whenever possible the tappal should be opened in the Collector's presence. When the Collector is on tour or whenever he does not find it convenient to open the tappal himself he may delegate this duty to the Huzur Sarishtadar. When the tappal is not opened in the Collector's presence he should make such arrangements as he considers necessary for seeing all the more important correspondence particularly from the Board and Government, at the earliest possible moment. Subject to any orders of the Collector when the tappal is opened by the Sarishtadar or is brought to him after being seen by the Collector, the following procedure shall ordinarily be followed.

A clerk hereinafter referred to as the "tappal clerk" should be in attendance. He enters papers in the distribution register under the Sarishtadar's order. He takes the Sarishtadar's initials in the distribution register. He also enters "valuable" in the usual security register. He takes the Sarishtadar's initials to all entries in this register.

Whenever a representation is received in an office, an acknowledgement should invariably be given to the person who has delivered the tappal or the said representation, by the tappal clerk or the concerned official, whoever may receive the representation over his full signature. The acknowledging official should write his name legibly and also affix the office seal with date, whenever possible on the acknowledgement - Added by G.O.Ms. No.666, G.A. (Ser.C) Dept, dated 8-10-1974.

If any petition or other communication is received which ought to have been addressed to ant other officer, he endorses it to that office, fills up the standard printed post-card informing the correspondent that the communication has been transferred to such other officer for disposal and gets the endorsement and the post-card passed by the Sarishtadar. He endorses petitions or the communications to the appropriate officer, for report or for information, as the Sarishtadar may direct, and gets such endorsement passed by the Collector or such officer as the Collector may designate. Similarly, he puts up endorsements returning unstamped or insufficiently stamped petitions, applications for appointment that are not in the prescribed form, etc., and get them passed by the Sarishtadar. In any cases not specified above in which communications can be disposed of or replied to, or information that is required can be called for by endorsement or in printed or duplicated "from letters" he puts up an endorsement or fills up the appropriate form, notes the gist on the communication on the form and the note passed by the Collector or such officer as the Collector may designate.

The tappal will then be sorted by the tappal clerk according to Sections and placed before the Sarishtadar who will look through it and note on it or give orally such instructions as may be necessary. Papers that should be filed (see paragraph 82) he will boldly mark "F" and if any of the papers coming under the Filing system is one which, in his opinion, requires indexing, he will mark it also with the letter "I". If there are any reminders from Government or the Board he will send for the connected files and submit notes at once to the Collector, explaining the cause of delay and how the matter stands. If any communication in the tappal is specially urgent, he will arrange for its being attended to forthwith. He wi11 them distribute the tappal to the several heads of Sections. The heads of Sections will deal with it on exactly the same lines. They will give any instructions that may be necessary, mark papers "F' or "F.I" where necessary, arrange for prompt attention to anything that is urgent, or to any orders of the Collector, or Sarishtadar noted on the tappal, and distribute the papers to the clerks who are to deal with them. The tappal clerk is responsible for seeing that the letter acknowledges in the distribution register, papers entered in it, and also enter their personal register numbers in it.

VII. Registering of Tappals

29. Registering: -
As soon as the clerks who are to deal with the papers receive them, they will register them at once in the personal registers (Form II, Appendix B) unless, under paragraph 30 below, they should not be registered. Any delay or neglect in this matter is a very serious dereliction of duty and will be punished with corresponding severity. If a paper is a new case, the clerk dealing with it will enter it in column 4 of the personal register. The entry in this column must be framed and arranged exactly like an index title (see chapter on indexing below). The clerk will also fill up columns 1 and 3.

A current that originates in the office is treated just like any other "new case". It will be entered in the personal register in column 4 of which the word "arising" (that is to say "arising in this office") will be entered after the title.

After entering the new cases the clerk will enter any old cases against their appropriate current numbers in column 9 (reply or fresh current received, from whom, number and date) and the date of receipt in column 10.

As soon as the clerk has completed the entries in the personal register relating to the papers received on any one occasion, which is to be done with the least possible delay as soon as he receives the􀁜, he will send the register to the Superintendent of Fair Copying Section. If there are no new cases of course there is no need to send register to the Superintendent.

As soon as the Superintendent of Fair Copying Section receives the personal register, he will enter against the new cases in it the next unassigned current numbers in his new case register (Form ill, Appendix-B). He will enter against the corresponding numbers in his new case register the Section letter and the clerk's number. He will then return the personal register to the clerk.

On receiving back, the personal register the clerk will enter the current numbers on the new case files.

When the subject clerk submits a file to the head of his Section or the latter submits a file to the Collector or other superior officer, the. clerk will note the fact (e.g., 1st April, 1921) in column 6 (submitted by the clerk in the personal register and similarly when he receives the file back, he will note the date on which he receives it in column 7.

30. What papers need not be registered: -
Papers marked "F", i.e., "File" (see below in the Section "Disposals") need not be registered, unless it is found actually necessary to initiate any correspondence in regard to them (other than merely communicating them to subordinate officers, or calling for spare copies). Papers which the Collector has marked "X.N. Dis" (Do not register, but return in original) or "X.L. Dis" (Do not register but lodge) will not be registered.

As an example of the sort of papers that will be marked "X.N.Dis." may be mentioned applications for appointments which are not in the prescribed form and which are returned with an endorsement to the effect, petitions which are returned with an endorsement to the effect that they are insufficiently stamped, and unimportant papers which ought to have been addressed to some other officer, and are endorsed to such officer. Papers are not to be marked "X" by anyone except the officer opening the tappal unless under the specific orders of the Collector Papers marked "X.L.Dis" will be kept in a separate "Lodges" bundle and destroyed after one year. In regard to the registration of periodicals see the Section on Periodicals below. No. paper that is to be entered in any other register (except the Distribution Register, Security Register special registers for Government suits and pauper suits and of course the New Case Register) must be entered also in the personal register.

31. Gun-licence Renewal Applications: -
In the past it has been the practice in some districts to register these annually by thousands in the ordinary current register, though the renewal of the vast majority of them is a mere routine matter in regard to which there is no correspondence whatsoever.

These should not be registered in the personal registers at all. The date of the application for renewal should be entered above the line in the renewal column for the year in the Register of Gun-Licences. Under this should be entered in due course "R" ("Renewed") or "C" ("Cancelled") and the date of the order. Should any correspondence arise in connection with an application (as it will in every case that ultimately results in cancellation) a new current will be opened for it and this will be assigned a new case number and be entered in a personal register in the usual way.

The new case number will then be noted against the application in the licence register. Such correspondence should ordinarily be given as "R" or "D" disposal (according to the importance of the case) and be indexed. Papers relating to ordinary cases of renewal should be filed in numerical order-examined by the licence number in one or more annual bundles or files (See filing section). They should be destroyed after the renewal or cancellation of the licences in the following year.

32. Plague correspondence: -
Plague correspondence should be entered in the personal register of the clerk dealing with the subject, the title of each new case being started with the word "Plague" in red ink. The personal register should be inspected twice a week by the head of the Section and frequently by the Head of the office or by a Gazetted Assistant deputed by the Collector when the Collector is the head of the office.

33. Special arrangements when clerks are on tour: -
When clerks are in camp, the Sarishtadar or if he is also on tour, some other officer specially designated to perform the duties in his absence, will read the papers in the daily tappal with which these clerks have to deal, sort them with the assistant of the tappal clerk and send them to camp. The subject clerk will separate the new cases from the old, give them serial numbers in his personal register and send a requisition for new case numbers to the Superintendent, Fair-Copying section, on a separate_ sheet of paper -noting the serial numbers of the personal register together with the full title heads. After assigning new case numbers against the serial numbers of the personal register, the Superintendent, Fair-Copying Section, will return the list to camp. On receipt, the clerk concerned will enter the new numbers in column 2 of the personal register against the respective serial numbers. This procedure will also apply to cases "arising" and to petitions presented to the Collector in camp.

If in any case a reference has to be issued urgently before the new case number has been assigned, it should bear the serial number of the paper in the Personal Register with the Section letter, the clerk's number and the word ('camp') as a temporary number.

VIII. Referencing, Arrangement of File Noting etc.,

34. Referencing: -
Every clerk into whose hands any paper or file comes whether to be referenced, fair-copied or despatched, or for the preparation of a note or draft or any other purpose, must write his initials with the date on it in ink, as soon as he gets it.

As soon as the clerk who has to deal with a paper has registered it, if it should be registered-he will next see that all the stamps have been properly punched (see Section "Miscellaneous" below). He will then study it and see whether any previous papers are required in order to deal with it and for this purpose should consult both his index and his personal register. This is of great importance, for one thing, to prevent old cases being treated by mistake as new cases. If this mistake is committed the same subject may be dealt with simultaneously in two separate currents and much confusion may arise.

Time may also be wasted in other ways, for example, in making a reference to some other officer, which would have been seen at once to be unnecessary if the Index had been consulted and some other file on the same subject had thus been found. The clerk will then send a requisition on the proper printed slip to the record-keeper for such necessary files as he may himself be able to trace, and also send with them any other papers which appear to be necessary. He must always put up all the "Backward and Forward Files" marked on the disposal jackets of the papers put up.

36. Current File and its arrangement: -
As soon as the clerk dealing with the file receives the previous papers, he will arrange the current file and the papers put up for reference (laid flat and not folded) on a flat file pad marked "Ordinary", "Urgent" or "Very Urgent" as may be appropriate. The papers forming the current file will be tagged together, and not pinned or tied with cotton. A hole should be punched in the left-hand upper comer of each paper with a proper punch and the tag will be passed through the holes. Files must not be tagged untidily, or so that the pages cannot be turned over freely and read easily, nor must the holes be poked in the papers with the pointed end of the tags.

A blue fly-leaf marked "Current file" must be placed at the top of the current file to distinguish it from the notes and papers put up for reference. The papers in the current file must be arranged in chronological order beginning from the top, and the pages must be numbered neatly in red ink in the same order. Both sides of each page must be numbered, even though one of the sides may be blank. Reminders (including demi- official reminders) and replies thereto which are not relevant to the subject-matter of the file and originals of drafts of which a clean copy typed or otherwise has been put into current file, should be tagged together and placed at the bottom of the file. They should be kept there until the file is finally disposed of and should then be destroyed. If, however, any enquiry as to should be filed in numerical order examined by the licence number in one or more annual bundles or files. (See Filing Section). They should be destroyed after the renewal or cancellation of the licences in the following year.

Demi-official and un-official communications having a clear bearing on the correspondence must be attached to the current file while those which are not of this description, that is, those which are not necessary for understanding the progress of the correspondence, should be attached to the note-file. If the demi-official or un-official communication contains anything confidential it should not go into the file at all, unless the file itself is confidential. When simple and short demi-officials have to be put up, they may be written in continuation of the main file as far as possible. Maps and statements in book-form must not be tagged with the current files. They will be kept separately immediately underneath the current file. Disposal files put up for reference will be arranged under the current file in chronological order, the earliest file at the bottom, then the next oldest and so on.

38. Reference to authorities quoted - “Flagging”: -
A reference to every paper quoted in the current will be noted on the margin of the current in pencil. Every disposal file put up for reference to which reference is, "actually" made in the current or notes must be flagged. No flags must be attached to the current or note-files themselves. References to these will be made by quoting the number of the page. Maps and statements will be flagged. Flags will be attached by paper fasteners, and not by pins, and when attached to a disposal file will be affixed to the brown paper "jacket" of the file, and not to any of the papers in the file. As far as possible flags should be arranged in alphabetical order, and in such a way as readily to catch the eye. Thus, if flag A is affixed to the bottom file (flag B will be affixed to the one next above it and so on). They will also be arranged so that one flag does not cover another. There must only be one flag on each file put up for reference. Care must be taken not to use more than one flag bearing the same letter or number on the same occasion.

39. Linking files: -
When it is necessary to refer in one file to another file that has not been disposed of, the two files will be "linked", i.e., the file put up for reference will be put under the other file and the strings of the lower file, but not its flaps, will be tied round the upper file. The strings of the upper file will be tied underneath it in a bow out of the way, so that one may not have the trouble of untying and retying two sets of strings. Each file will thus be intact with its note-file, current file and reference files, properly arranged on its own pad. The two pads must not be put together at the bottom with the contents of the two files mixed together above them. Files are not to be "linked" unnecessarily, or merely because they deal with similar cases, but only when it is necessary to refer to a paper in one file in order to dispose of the other, or when the orders passed on the one will apply to the other.

40. Note file: -
No notes must be written on the currents except very simple ones. Other notes must be written on both sides of the paper prescribed for the purpose; blank sheets being added where necessary before submission to officers. This is of two kinds, one with a margin half the width of the paper and the other with a margin one-third of its width. The former should only be used when the subject dealt with is such as to invite marginal comments or orders, for instance, when orders have to be passed on a great number of points, as in a note dealing with the question of revising rules or amending an Act.

The note connected with ant subject will run continuously from the inception of the file until final orders are passed. The note-file will be separate from the current file and its pages will be numbered in a separate series in black ink. In addition to the 􀁑age numbered in the note-file, the note should be broken up as much as possible into shot paragraphs each dealing with a single point. There should be a continuous numbering of paragraphs from the beginning to the end of the note-file, whether the notes are recorded by the officer or a superior. At the top of the note-file will be placed a yellow fly leaf. Its pages will be tagged like those of the current file.

At the head of the first page of the note will be written the title of the file which should be identical with the entry in column 4 of the personal register and should in any case be arranged as laid down in the chapter on indexing. If the subject originated with a communication from outside, the reference number and date of such communication should follow. Nothing is ever to be written on the blue and yellow fly leaves. They are never to be sent out of the office except when an "unofficial" reference is made, and they are to be removed from a file as soon as it is closed and used again. The notes should not be removed from the files submitted to the Board of Revenue or to the Government, but should be removed from files produced in courts.

41. Object and contents of a note: -
The aim of a note should be to present in the most intelligible, condensed and convenient form possible the facts of the case to be dealt with, including its past history, the points for decision, useful precedents, and the material provision of the law or rules governing it, supported by full references to the current file or to previous correspondence and to Acts or other official publications, enabling every fact stated to be verified, and every authority cited to be consulted every fact stated to be verified, and every authority cited to be consulted in original. It should not merely reproduce the matter or the current file, still less should it expand it. It should of course supply deficiencies or omissions and correct any error or explain any ambiguity in the current, and draw attention to points on which fuller information may be necessary before orders can be passed. If a report is full, accurate and clear, a short note summarizing the salient points on which orders should be passed will be sufficient.

It is not necessary to set forth afresh any summary of facts or discussion of principles which already exists in an adequate form in any previous file. It will be sufficient in such a case to draw attention to the previous file, and then add such fresh matters as may be required. But great care should be taken not to overlook any new points. It may be sufficient simply to refer to the notes in the previous file, but it should be carefully verified whether there are any fresh points raised in the later communication and if there are, they should be noted on.

43. When a draft may be put up together with the note: -
In simple cases, and whenever it is obvious what course should be adopted, a draft may be put up at the same time as the note is submitted for orders. Even in fairly complicated cases this may sometimes be done, especially if the draft is one asking for further information. The Collector may pass the draft, or amplify it, modify it. If he requires further information from the office, he will ask for it. Of course, even in such a case, if necessary, a note must be put up explaining the necessity for any question asked in the draft, referring, it may be, to the Act, or the previous history of the case. If the Collector is not sure to find the draft self-explanatory, there should be a note to explain it. The point is that the note and the draft should not be identical, or nearly so, when this can be avoided.

When a draft is put up the word "Draft submitted" with date and initials should be entered at the foot of the note. When the reference or order is issued its date and the name of the officer to whom it is sent should be entered below the words "Draft submitted" Below the entry relating to the reference the receipt of the reply to that reference should be noted in the same way. Against each entry in the note-file relating to the receipt or current file at which the paper in question is to be found will be entered, to facilitate reference to the correspondence.

45. References to authorities quoted in the note: -
For every statement made in the note, except expressions of opinion, which should not be offered by officers lower in rank than the heads of Sections, an authority must be cited, and such authority must be noted in the margin. When such authority is to be found in the current file itself, the page at which it is to be found, and the number of the relevant paragraph on such page, will be noted; when it is contained in a previous disposal file, the number and the letter or number borne by the flag attached to the file, will all be noted alone, as if this is done, and the paper is put up subsequently (perhaps years later) for reference in connection with some other case, it will be difficult to trace the various references. Passages in the current of the page on which they occur. No flag should be attached to the current file or note-file. Nothing whatever except the references is to be written in the margin of the notes, which is reserved for the Collector's orders and remarks. Notes passing between members of the staff should not be filed.

46. Replies to Collector's queries: -
When the Collector writes a question in the margin of the note, the reply to it is to be written in continuation of the note, and not in the margin. The Collector's question will be copied out afresh at the end of the note, and the answer written below the copy; or the letter A, B etc., will be written boldly against each such question, and the answers marked with the corresponding letters, written at the end of the note. If the Collector writes any questions written in continuation of the note, and if a note-file has not been opened already, one will be opened for the purpose.

47. Opening a fresh file for a separate subject arising out of a current file: -
When in the course of dealing with a subject any fresh subject arises, with which it is desirable to deal separately, extracts will be taken of the parts of the current file and note-file relating to the fresh subject, and with these a separate file will be started. This will probably be necessary whenever the original title of the file no longer correctly describes the actual subject under correspondence, and not otherwise. The general principles laid down in regard to indexing apply to such files as much as to correspondence originating with an outside reference. It must also be numbered as a new case and registered.

48. Reference to Acts, books. Etc., -
Whenever a book is referred to in a note, the numbers of the relevant page, paragraph, clause, etc., are to be given, and also the number of the book in the list of the books of reference which the Collector always has on or near his office table. These books should be numbered boldly on labels affixed to their backs and a list of them and of their numbers should be compiled and printed. One copy of this list should be pasted on card-board and kept on the Collector's table, and each clerk should be provided with a copy of it. The books will be referred to thus, e.g., paragraph 4 (II) of B.S.O. No. page Book No. 31. When an Act is referred to, the number and short title of the Act will be given, including the legislative authority that passed it (Andhra Pradesh or India), e.g., "Andhra Land Revenue Assessments (Standardisation) Act, 1956" or "The Indian Treasure Trove Act VI of 1878 (India)". If the Act quoted is printed in any of the books in the Collector's list, e.g., the Andhra Pradesh Code or Unrepealed Acts of the Government of India, the number of the book and the number of the page to be put up. If any book not included in the Collector's list is quoted, it will be put up with the file. Such books and Acts will be placed above the flaps of the file, and not under them.

49. Responsibility of Heads of Sections: -
Heads of Sections must remember that they are responsible for the style and accuracy of the notes and drafts proceeding from their Sections, and that they cannot throw that responsibility on their clerks. When a clerk's note is wrong or imperfect, a fresh note should be prepared and the other removed. The Head of the Section must not submit the wrong note after merely adding his own note correcting it. Superseded note should generally be destroyed. If the Head of the Section thinks it necessary, they may be kept at the bottom of the entire bundle next to the pad. They should never be filed in the current or note-files and they should be destroyed when the file is finally closed. The clerk directly in charge of the file, and the head of the Section concerned, will both write their initials, with the date, at the left-hand comer below each instalment of the note. Explanation and notes of a personal nature will be signed legibly with the full name of the office submitting them, including the titles "Sarma, Sastri, Rao, Nayudu, Pantulu etc.," and will be kept separately from the note-file, and flagged, and will be merely referred to in the note-file thus: "The clerk's explanation is submitted, Flag A,"

49-A. Reference to previous discussions: -
Any discussion of an important issue without reference to its previous history would be incomplete and, in some cases, even highly embarrassing, officers and other members of the staff should therefore, ensure that while going into a question, all previous discussions are duly taken note of. The following guidelines are, therefore, laid down for the benefit of all the Government servants including officers, -

(1) a thorough personal scrutiny of every paper of files should be made before passing orders or drafting a report to their superiors;

(2) an imaginative effort to find out whether the matter before them is likely to have had previous history or whether a situation similar to the one dealt within that file would have arisen in the past should also be made;

(3) it should be ensured that proper disposals are given to cases and that the numbers of the previous and subsequent disposals are duly noted on the back of the disposal jackets;

(4) a thorough study of the file should be made with a view to finding out whether there is evidence in the file itself suggesting that the matter had been considered on an earlier occasion;

(5) care should be taken to ensure that proper "titles" are chosen for the final disposals, to facilitate subsequent identification and tracing of the disposal;

(6) it should also be ensured that prompt preparation of indices of disposals is made; and

(7) indices should be consulted before notes are put up.

IX. Drafting

50. Title to be written at head of draft: -
At the head of every draft letter, proceedings or memorandum, the title must be written. It should be framed and arranged exactly like an index file. (See the Section on Indexing below). In a letter this will come after the word "Sir", "Madam" or "Gentleman”, On no account are titles or "purports" to be written on the backs of letters of proceedings, or on separate docket sheets attached to them. This traditional but absurd practice should be stopped in all offices. The title should come after the word "Sir, even when old C.F. 31 is used which provides a space for the "Subject" at the head of the sheet and thereby wastes about a quarter of a sheet of paper. New C.F. 21 provides for the insertion of the title in the proper place.

After the title and separated by a line or a row of asterisks from the body of the letter, should come the number (if it has one) and date of any communication to which the draft is a reply, and also the numbers and dates of any other communications or files, the quotation of which may be helpful either to the issuing office or to any one to whom the communication is addressed, or to whom a copy of it is sent. Thus, if the alienation of a piece of land to a municipality is sanctioned, and the proceedings are communicated to the Chairman and also to the Tahsildar, and to the Special Settlement Officer, the numbers and dates of the last communication in any correspondence that has been received from each of these officers on the subject should be given. Sometimes also the number of older correspondences from their offices on the same subject in previous years may be useful. Such references are of great help to the officers to whom the proceedings are sent, because they enable them at once to trace the connected correspondence in their office.

51. Examples of Titles: -
The following illustrations will make the last paragraph clear: -

(1) A memorandum: -
“Encroachment - Suryapeta taluk, Nallur village - S.No. 466 -Assignment - Ramappa (B) - Petition, dated 21st June, 1921-Tahsildar's D. Dis. No. 10 75/ 21, dated 151 August, 1921”. "The petitioner must vacate the encroachment at once. The land will not be assigned to him."

(2) Proceedings: -
“Transfer - Dry to wet - Bandar taluk, Gudur village-S. No. 322-KrishnayyaNaidu (D) Refused”. "Petition, dated 12th September, 1920----Tahsildar's N. Dis. No. 398/ 20, dated 6th December, 1920 Executive Engineer's No. 177, Irrigation, dated 6th June, 1921". "The land will not be transferred to wet. The petitioner is warned that if he uses tank water for it, prohibitory water-rate will be imposed."

52. Form of proceedings: -
The old-fashioned method of drafting proceedings with a long preamble "reading" a variety of previous papers, including that on which orders were passed and setting forth their purports in long-winded phraseology, wasted much labour and stationery. Often the result was that precisely the same matter was set forth at least twice; once (if not often) in the preamble and again in the proceedings. The principle to be observed may be stated briefly thus. The order should be complete in itself. The title should appear at the head followed by such description (office of origin, current or disposal number, date etc.) of the communications with reference to which the proceedings are passed, as will be sufficient to enable ant officer to whom it is communicated to trace any previous correspondence on the subject in his office without delay. Each paragraph in a draft should be numbered.

53. Enclosures to be minimised: -
The rule that every communication should as far as possible be completed in itself is to be strictly observed. It follows that the practice of enclosing in official communications copies of communications received from other officers, subordinate or otherwise, or from private individuals should be avoided. No such copy is to be sent as an enclosure to any communication issuing from the office without the specific orders of the Collector. It has been the practice in many offices in the past, sometimes to issue meagre communications, which could not be understood without studying a mass of voluminous enclosures, and at other times to issue communications complete in themselves, but accompanied by enclosures containing the same matter expressed-perhaps more than once-with more or less variety of form. The former method wastes the time of the officer addressed; the latter wastes both his time and that of the office from which the communication issues.

A somewhat similar point is that particulars should not be "noted in the margin" when it is as convenient-not to say more so to enter them in the body of the letter.

54. Office-copies, form letters, and proceedings: -
In a great many cases there is no need to keep an office copy at all. To give only a few examples. In acknowledging the return of records, in submitting records, in replying to some simple questions or requests, it is generally quite immaterial what the precise form of the communication was. In cases of this sort, all that is necessary is to note briefly on the current file or the note-file if there is one, or, if there is no note-file and the communication has been returned in original, in the Personal Register, that a reply has been sent, and its gist. For instance, "Acknowledged, 12th February, 1920.” “Replied that we have no-information. 14th June, 1920.” “Records forwarded. 1st July, 1920”. “Allowed time till 13th October, 1920 (1st September, 1920)". "Extension refused. 1st August 1920".

This method is particularly applicable where a letter or memorandum or proceedings in a printed or duplicated form have been issued, as one then knows exactly what the form of the communication was. All that need be noted, instead of keeping an office-copy, is the particulars entered in the blanks in the form-letter, etc., and the gist of anything added to it in manuscript. The use of such form-letters is a most important devise for saving labour and time, and opportunities for its extension should be watched for constantly and seized whenever they present themselves. The observance of these rules will save stationery as well as labour, not to mention space on the record-racks. In many offices an intelligent use of duplicators is not made. It seems to be thought that they are only of use when circulars have frequently to be issued identical in form and only differing in particulars.

55. Office-copies and fair-copies to be typed together when possible: -
Much time and labour is saved if in simple cases the office submit a fair copy and an office-copy simultaneously, ty ped together by the use of carbon paper. In simple cases the precise wording is more or less immaterial, and, even if the grammar is not above criticism this is of little importance provided that there is no ambiguity. Moreover, if clerks are encouraged to take the risk of putting up a fair-copy they are likely to take more care over their drafting. They should also be quite capable of learning to draft correctly in simple cases. They should also be quite capable of learning to draft correctly in simple cases.

They can often find a precedent which they can more or less closely follow. They should also be furnished with the stock paragraphs to be used either separately or in combination in simple cases. When it is a question of communicating some Government Orders, or Proceedings of the Board of Revenue, which it is not necessary or desirable simply to send on with an endorsement, the simplest course is for the drafting clerk or proceedings themselves in pencil, and the typist can then type office-copy and fair-copy together. Where they can be typed simultaneously it saves the time of all concerned: from the Collector who is trouble with the file only once instead of twice, down to the clerk and the typist, one of whom at least is saved the trouble of making a separate fair-copy, whether in type or manuscript. Moreover, about a day's delay is saved when office and fair-copies are typed simultaneously.

56. Unnecessary references and piecemeal references: -
No reference should be made to a subordinate officer, or to anyone else, which is not absolutely necessary. No information should be called for from a subordinate officer, or from anyone else, which can be gathered from the records in the Collector's office. Such unnecessary references may often be avoided by carefully consulting the index, and tracing and examining previous correspondence. Incompetent or lazy clerks are fond of asking unnecessary questions either to save themselves trouble, or to get rid of the paper for the time being and so reduce the apparent pendency of papers. Moreover, when a reference has to be made, great care should be taken to see that it is complete.

A common and very serious fault, and a frequent cause of delay, is to call for information piecemeal, i.e. after one reference has been answered, a second is made which should, have been embodied in the first. The faults referred to in this paragraph are characteristic of an inferior class of clerks, and also indicate inadequate supervision. It is for the Personal Assistant, the Sarishtadar and heads of Sections to prevent them. The Personal Assistant or other who passes "Routine" drafts for the Collector must not perform his duties in a mechanical or perfunctory manner and must pay particular attention to the points referred to in this paragraph among others.

In the case of important circulars, etc., issued by the Collector to the Revenue Divisional Officers, Taluk Officers, Block Development Officers, etc., and which have necessarily to be communicated (by the officer to whom it is issued) to their subordinate staff, the required number of copies should be prepared in the Collector's office itself and issue to the subordinate officer concerned to avoid duplication of work. The officer approving the draft should decide in each case whether the communication will have to be sent to the subordinate staff by the officer to whom it is issued and if so, indicate on the draft 'A' class despatch.

56-A. Reports by Subordinate Offices: -
When a report is made by a subordinate office to a higher authority and where it is anticipated that a copy of the report would be communicated to the next higher authority, the office of origin should submit the report in duplicate so that the office of the higher authority need not copy the communication again.

57. Communication of Orders to Petitioner: -
When a petition is rejected, the reasons for rejection should formally be given in brief in the order issued, unless the disclosure of such reasons is considered prejudicial to public interest, or there are good reasons for keeping them confidential. When an order, passed by the Board or Government, has to be communicated to a petitioner, only the purport of the order, or so much of the text as may bear immediately on the petitioner's representation, should be communicated to him. The full text of the order should never be communicated, much less the whole correspondence embodied in the Board's Proceedings or Government Order.

58. Nature of disposal and other particulars to be entered on the draft: -
On every draft must be noted clearly whether it is intended to issue as a reference or as a disposal, and in the latter case whether it is to be an R., a D., an L., or an N. disposal. Great care must be taken to write these important letters and the Section letters and all numbers very clearly, both on the draft and the fair copies. This may sound obvious and superfluous, but cases have occurred in which much time was wasted owing to "L" having been written so as to look like "D" so that a disposal was sought for vainly in the wrong bundle-though one would have supposed that the letters L. and D. were sufficiently dissimilar.

Another piece of carelessness is to write "B" so as to be mistaken by correspondents for "13" so that in their replies they quote an unintelligible reference. It is the duty of all clerks and all Section Heads to initial the above letters in addition to any initials they affix in any other part of the file. These initials are to be understood as a certificate that that the clerks or the Section head has considered the proper method of disposal of the file. Where there is a note-file, a note should end by referring to the proposed disposal of the file as R.Dis. 'D.Dis. or L.Dis.

[To ensure that important disposals of permanent reference value only are classified under the 'R' Series, the specific orders should be obtained from an Officer at least next below the rank of the Head of a Department or the Head of the Office, who should examine such classification and approve or revise it - Added by GO.Ms.No.351, GA.D., (Ser.- C), dated 27-12-82]

59. Endorsements or N.references and disposals: -
Whenever possible and convenient, petitions and communications, official or unofficial, asking for information should be returned in original, with the reply, or order, or the call for further information endorsed on them. The letter "N" prefixed to the number of a reference or disposal means that the papers are sent out in original, when an "N" reference is made an "N" reference slip should be filled up and kept, to take the place of the file, unless there is a note-file. Reminders received or issued on a paper that has been sent out with an "N" reference should be noted on the N. reference slip or on the note-file, as the case may be. The form of N. reference slip will be found in Appendix B.

60. Replies to reminders: -
Much time is wasted in sending replies to reminders that do not call for a reply. This is quite unnecessary, unless the reply to the reference has already been sent, and that so long ago that the receipt of a reminder suggests that it must have either gone astray or been mislaid or overlooked. In that case the point should be cleared up, and if the matter is of any urgency a copy of the reply sent to the original reference should at once be sent to the officer issuing the reminder. If, on the other hand, a reminder is received from a superior authority, calling for a reply to such reminder, a reply explaining the cause of delay should be sent at once. In regard to reminders from Government and the Board, see Paragraph 28 above.

61. Place of the draft in the file: -
Drafts should be on a separate sheet of paper, except such disposals as "R.Dis", D.Dis", "L.Dis." Communicated to ... " and very simple drafts which may be written on the last sheet of the Current itself, if there is room. Drafts on separate sheets must be placed below the Note-file and above the Current-file. They must not be tagged to either. After issue, the draft will be tagged in its proper place according to chronological order in the Current file.

X. Style in Notes and Drafts

62. The following instructions will be observed in drafting and also in writing notes: -

(i) "Government" will be treated as a plural noun and "Board" as a singular.

(a) communications intended to the High Court should be addressed only to the Registrar, High Court of Andhra Pradesh and not to the Chief Justice and those intended to the Board of Revenue, should be addressed to the Secretary and not to the Members of the Board. (GO.Ms.No.253, G.A.D, dated the March, 1963)

(b) The form of official correspondence between the District and Divisional Officers including the District Collectors, Revenue Divisional Officers, Assistant Collectors, Sub-Collectors and Deputy Collectors on the one hand and the Tahsildars (Gazetted) on the other hand shall be in the form of a letter. (GO.Ms.No.871, GA.(Services-C) Department, dt.28th July, 1964)

(ii) The words "Instant", "Proximo", "Idem" and ''Ultimo" are not to be used. They are not necessarily even abbreviations, and they possess no other recommendation. On the contrary, they lead to confusion, and one has to take the trouble of looking at the date of the letter to find out what they mean. The names of the months must invariably be used instead.

(iii) "The same" must not be used instead of "it" or some other simple word.

(iv) The expression "The undersigned" must not be used. It is very ugly and usually, or often, inaccurate, as the person who signs is often as a matter of fact not the person to whom the expression the ''undersigned" is intended to refer e.g., the person who ''views with displeasure", etc., is the Collector, but the person who signs is the Personal Assistant.

(v) While avoiding slang, one should aim at an easy natural style as near as possible to spoken English. Clerks usually write in a style in which they would never talk, however modest their proficiency in that language. Thus, they habitually use such needlessly formal words as "therein" and "thereon" instead of "in it" or "on it," and they have a strange preference for passive verb over active verbs ("It is not understood" for "I do not understand”. "It should be reported" for "The Tahsildar, etc., should report") and for nouns over verbs ("the date of issue of the order should be reported by him" "he should report when he issued the order"), peculiarities that make their style at once value and clumsy. They use such phrases as "make the assessment" instead of the simple verb "assess". They also prefer long words to short ones ("purchase" to "buy", "commence" to "begin" and "omitted to" or "failed to" to the simple "did not" - the two latter are very common) and often insert words or phrases which add nothing to the meaning ("cases of in arms’ = "building purposes" = "building", "make enquiries" = "enquire"). Where "omit" by itself is proper and sufficient, clerks display their love of the redundant by such phrases as "has been omitted from the Register". Another widespread error is the use of "for being" instead of "to be" and "for doing" instead of "to do" ("returned for being stamped" instead of "to be stamped"). If the Collector orders that a clerk should be punished "for being impertinent" it does not mean "in order to make him impertinent."

(vi) Foreign or classical words and expressions should be avoided as far as possible, and in particular "infra" and "supra" should not be used instead of "below" and "above". They are in no way superior to their English equivalents. Nor is "vide" preferable to "see", ''please see" ''please vide" Hideous hybrid words such as "field war" should always be avoided. Convenience is not a sufficient excuse for jargon of this sort. Vernacular words should only be used when their meaning cannot be expressed equally well in English. There is no objection to interlarding what is supposed to be English with terms like "Bhustithi". Short sentences are in accordance with genius of the English language "The Collector's attention is invited to B.P ........ He is requested ...." is better than "The Collector's attention is invited to B.P. ......and he is requested." "In cases in which" is a clumsy phrase for which ''when", "where" or "if'' can usually be substituted. The word "necessary" is usually superfluous in such phrases as "the necessary entries", "the necessary corrections," "the necessary instructions," etc.

The vague and ugly phrase "do the needful" should never be used. Either state definitely what is to be done or say "do what is necessary" or something of that sort. The word "avail" is a very awkward one, as it is a reflexive and also takes "of' after it. It is better avoided. Moreover, if you do use it, you must not say "the leave was availed of' or "I availed of the leave", still less "he is permitted to avail the holidays". You must say "I availed myself of the leave" and so on. But why not simply say "took the leave."? "Available" also is a bad word. Like most of the blemishes in clerical English, it is apparently cherished for its vagueness. The Secretary was once told in the Board's office that a register was "not readily available". This might have meant many-things, for example, that the book was needed for reference by one of the Members, or had been sent somewhere out of the office or was locked up and the key was elsewhere. The fact was, that the register had been lost. It is very annoying to have one's work increased by having to send a note back to ask what it means.

(vii) "Split infinitives" should be avoided that is to say, write "kindly to state" not "to kindly state". A very common, and equally objectionable feature of official communications is a similar splitting of other verbal phrases, for instance, "The Collector will, in the circumstances now stated, be requested" is more like German than English. It is quite as easy to say "in the circumstances now stated, the Collector will be requested to ............... " Do not write "marginally noted" which could only mean "having marginal notes." Write "noted in margin". "Similarly, "plan-marked" could only mean "marked with plans" (Compare "pock-marked") and "plaint-mentioned" neither does not possibly could mean anything.

(viii) Instead of such a phrase as "1914, 1915 and 1916 were 256, 257 and 348, respectively" which is confusing, write "the figures for 1914 was 256, that for 1915 was 257 and that for 1916 was 348." This is little, if at all, longer and is perfectly clear. "Former'' and "latter'' should also be avoided as constant sources of confusion. Slipshod abbreviations such as ''para" for paragraph should not be used.

Do not ride any phrase to death. Some clerks begin every letter with the phrase "with reference to." It is better to vary the phrase so as to make it more definite. Say "In reply to," "As directed in" and so on; or begin in narrative form "in their order ......... Government directed ......... " Avoid the phrase "with advertence to." "Who all" and "what all" are not English, but translations of vernacular phrases for which there are no exact English equivalents. In ordinary English "in case" does not mean the same as "if' "I shall take my umbrella in case it rains," means "so as to be prepared for rain." Nor does "as well as" mean the same as "and." It is much more emphatic.

It would be absurd to say "a man was 5 feet 8 inches high as well as 21 years of age." But you might well say that he "was a good painter as well as a remarkable musician." The unusual nature of the combination is here emphasized. Clerks are very fond, however, of writing "as well as" for "and" and "incase" for "if', presumably owing to their preference for a longer expression as such. "In case if’' is a stage further on the downward path. "I am unable to" for "I cannot," and "hand over" for "give" are other common examples of the preference for the longer phrase." "By the time" is sometimes wrongly used for "then". "By that time" means "then." "By the time that" means "when".

Always be as definite as possible. Some examples of this rule have been given above. Use the first person rather than the third as a general rule. The most appalling perversion of the third person construction is the formula "Has the honour to enquire, etc .......". without any subject. "As such" is often misused. It is correct to say "Mr. A was not then the Sarishtadar and as such was bound to report ........ " but "Mr. A. was not then the Sarishtadar and as such he is not to be blamed" is meaningless. "While such being the case" is a familiar embellishment of criminal complaints, etc. "While" is here redundant.

Vakils and Sub-Magistrates are fond of writing "the witness would say", meaning that he did say it but that they don't believe him. Apparently, this is due to a dim recollection of "would have as believe" or some such phrase. "Would implies either a desire to do something, which desire was not fulfilled, or that something has not occurred but wot1ld do so in certain circumstances.

Tenses and moods are misused in almost every note or draft. The misuse of "had" is one of the commonest errors. The pluperfect "had" is rightly used to emphasize the priority of one event in the past to another. It is correct to say “I had gone to bed when the house caught fire” but senseless to say “I had gone to bed at 10 o'clock last night"- (“I went” is correct) unless the meaning is that you had gone to bed before 10 o'clock. Clerks also use the present for the incomplete perfect e.g., they write “I am record-keeper from 1906. “I have been record-keeper since 1906” is correct. "Government press for a reply" should be "Government are pressing for a reply.” “The following men now act" is wrong. It should be "are now acting". "Act" means "usually act" or "habitually act". "are acting" emphasises the fact that they are doing so now.

The future is often misused, owing to the unintelligent copying of Board's and Government Orders. In a Board's Proceedings the phrase "The Collector will be directed" is appropriate because theoretically it is a direction by the Board to its Secretary. It is senseless in the proceedings of a Collector. Similarly, "I am to say" is appropriate in a letter from a secretary writing under instructions not in a letter issued by a Collector on his own authority." "Must have" is sometimes misused for "should have" or "ought to have". "Must have done it" mean that the certainly has done it. Clerks use it to mean that he has not done it but should have.

(ix) Clerks commonly misuse "till" in a way that is positively misleading. "No reply was received till January 1st" implies that a reply was received on January 1st; but clerks use it meaning that even on January 1st no reply had been received. To convey this latter meaning "up to" the pluperfect is the correct English- "Up to January 1st, I had received no reply".

Distinguish "All the stamps have not been punched," which is ambiguous from "Not all the stamps have been punched" or "the stamps have not all been punched". Which mean that some have been punched and some not. These phrases are commonly confused.

“The Tahsildar has yet to collect Rs.1,000” is not ordinary modern English. "Still has" is correct. "Yet" may be used with negative e.g., "has not yet applied" and is only used with a positive verb in special phrases such as "I have yet to learn". "So" is not equivalent to "very". Clerks write "the peon is so impertinent", "I warned him so many times" meaning, "very impertinent," "very often". "Not so bad" means "rather good", but this is a colloquial phrase. Similarly, "too" has generally a relative sense, that is, it implies excess relatively to a certain standard or object, not absolute intensity--so to speak (except in a few colloquial phrases, such as "it is too bad").

But clerks commonly write "it is too hot" meaning "it is very hot." The verb "hope" implies pleasurable anticipation. Clerks use it sometimes instead of a neutral word such as "think" and thereby produce comically inappropriate phrases such as "I hope your honour is ill".

Omission of articles (a, an, the) is a common and ugly fault. It is permissible in a telegram for reasons of economy--not elsewhere. But articles must be used be used correctly. Clerks write "appellant is the inhabitant of Puthur" which implies that there is only one inhabitant. "An inhabitant of Puthur" is correct. This is serious omission" should be ''This is a serious omission". "As to" is a common redundant form, e.g., ''This Tahsildar is directed to report as to whether"; "whether" alone is sufficient. So "as against" or "as compared with" are commonly used in comparing figures, where "against" or "compared with" are sufficient and correct. It is correct to say "as compared with last harvest, the yield was poor," but not "the yield was 4 annas as compared with 8 annas last year". "As" means nothing in the latter phrase.

Pseudo accuracy accounts for much unnecessary verbiage. "If any" is a common example of this fault. It is quite unnecessary to say "the Tahsildar is requested to report the number of cases if any". If there are none, the Tahsildar will say so. In the same way it is unnecessary to say "The Deputy Collector is requested to report whether it is advisable or not to ...... " The use of the word "ask" instead of "order" of "direct" produces a curiously impotent effect when a lower subordinate is referred to. "The Revenue Inspector may be asked to report" sounds silly.

On the other hand, the use of such phrases as "at all", "care to," "inspite of'' sometimes sounds needlessly discourteous as well as unidiomatic. "Inspite of 3 reminders the Tahsildar has not at all cared to reply" is rude as well as un - English. "It will be enough if the Tahsildar. ........” is not English. A n Englishman would say "The Tahsildar need only". Avoid pretentious words such as "penultimate". "Last but one" is quite good enough. "Diglot" is a hideous word. "English and Telugu" is more definite.

“I have the honour to request that you will be so good as to furnish me with information as to whether" is the sort of stuff that clerks revel in (and yet they complain that they have too much work). "I have the honour to enquire whether" means exactly the same and is not unduly curt. Never use several words where one will do. Do not write "make an application" but "apply." A clerk will write "a label of the value of annas eight only" instead of "an eight-anna stamp." Such inversions as "annas eight" and the addition of the word "only" after ant sum of money are in place in a bill or cheque-not elsewhere.

“In this connection” at the beginning of a sentence is a favourite bit of hackneyed padding. It means nothing at all. "In returning herewith" is a favourite but ugly type of opening phrase. It is often aggravated by making the subject of the main sentence different from the implied subject of "returning" or by changing to the passive construction. You can say "In returning ........... I have the honour to point out." You can say "In returning herewith the statement received with his letter ........... the Deputy Collector is informed". But this is quite common! On the other hand, such phrases as "Turning to paragraph 1 it may be observed" and so on ("Regarding", "Concerning", "Considering", etc.,) are unobjectionable though "Turning to paragraph-1, I may observe" is no doubt more strictly correct.

(x) A needless anxiety to avoid repetition gives rise to various faults. Sometimes, instead of repeating a man's name, a clerk will say "the individual" which is very ugly and also bad English. The uses of "former and latter", "respectively" and "the same" have been mentioned already and also come under this head. Clerks confuse "comprise," "compose" and "consist" and their respective constructions. They write "the land comprises of three plots" or is comprised of." The correct forms are "the land comprises/consists of/is composed of three plots". They also write "the old building was substituted by a new one".

You can say "a new building was substituted for the old one" or "the old building was replaced by a new one". You can say " a new building was substituted for the old one" or " the old building was replaced by a new one". "Dispose it off' is a common error for "dispose of it" also "tear off for "tear up" and "stick up" for "stick in." (You can stick a thing "up" on a well of course, but not ''up" in a book). "Stick up to" is used by clerks for "stick to" itself a slang phrase. "He stuck up to the agreement" is wrong.

Clerks also write "slips have been pasted" and the "papers have been stitched" where "pasted in" and stitched (or perfectly "sewn") together" are correct. To "leave off' means to stop e.g., "It has left off raining." Clerks use it to mean "let go." "He left him off' is meaningless. My/Appellant's / His another brother" are not English. You must write another brother of mine/ Appellant/His. "To list" in the sense of "make a list of' is not good modem English. "To list" means either "to listen" (poetic), or "to desire" (old English, e.g., "the wind bloweth the where it listeth") or "to lean" (nautical e.g., "The ship listed sharply to port"). "Agree" and tally" cannot be used actively.

Figures may agree or tally. You cannot "agree" figures or "tally" them. Generally, use unpretentious words rather than pompous ones. "I went to camp" not "I proceeded" (almost universal in clerical productions), "buy" not "purchase", "live" or "dwell" not "reside". Clerks also for some curious reasons love the word "potion". "Part" is much more usual in English "portion" has some special meaning, e.g., "Marriage portion". Similarly, "instead of' is much more usual in ordinary English than "in lieu of', which is a phrase used mainly in legal documents. "Moiety" is another legal word which should not be used for "half'. "Stamp" is the ordinary English word which should not be used for "half'. "Stamp" is the ordinary English word not "label" and "envelope" or "letter" not "cover." You cannot say "He told/expressed that he was unwilling." It must be "he told me that he was unwilling", "he expressed his unwillingness", he expressed Himself strongly." "I know to speak English" is wrong. You must say "I know how to speak English." "Enough of money" is not English. Say "enough money". "Of follows "enough" when for any reason it is necessary to use "enough" as substantive, e.g., "I have had enough of this," "I don't know enough .......... Of the language to ........ but "I know enough English to ......... " "None" for "no one" is absolute or poetical.

Do not write "None made any offer" but "no one made any offer". Do not say "there is no any paper" but "there is not any paper". Do not say "this is known to all" but "everyone knows this." "There is no use of sending" is wrong. It should be "it is no use sending", "it is no use to send" or "there is no use in sending". Do not qualify expressions needlessly. To do so produces a flabby emasculated style.

Clerks often write "this is not quite satisfactory" when they mean that it is "very unsatisfactory." Similarly, they put in words like "it seems" and "it appears" when there is really no doubt. "He was absent in his house," meaning that he was elsewhere than in his house, is a contradiction in terms. "Absent from" is correct but the ordinary English would be "he was not at home." Or simply "he was away" or "was out". "Also" is misused with negatives. He did not address the letter and did not also stamp it" should be "nor did he stamp it".

(xi) "He puts himself up at . . .... " or "he is put up at" are wrong. The correct English (and it is colloquial) "he is putting up at", "Wooden piece" for "piece of wood" is a common error. Similarly, clerks write "match box" for box of matches". "A match box" may have no matches in it. It is simply a box intended to contain matches. A "box of matches" is a box containing matches. "I enquired/enquired into the witness" is another frequent mistake. You "examine" a witness and "enquire into" a case. But one does not "investigate into a case"; "one investigates it."

"Male member" should not be used to mean "male" for "man". You can say "the male members of my family." Do not say "my family members" but "members of my family."

Clerks use "through" meaning "past," and "cross" meaning "went past," e.g., "I went through the Temple", or "I crossed the Temple". You "cross" a river or a road when you go from one side of it to the other. Do not use such phrases as "has breathed his lost," or "is no ·more," for "is dead." "It is high time to do so and so" is an idiomatic English phrase. "As it was high time< the Court adjourned the case till next day" is not English.

Foreign or classical words and expressions should be avoided as far as possible. Vernacular words should only be used when their meaning cannot be expressed equally well in English.

"In view to do so and so" is wrong. You can say "with a view to reducing" meaning "in order to reduce," and you can also say "in view of these circumstances" meaning "having regard to them." "In view to" is impossible.

"The Tahsildar should insist on the Revenue Inspector to reply" is wrong. It should be "should insist on his replying."

"Address" is used by clerks as though it meant "ask," "Government will be addressed to reconsider their order" is, strictly speaking, meaningless. "Government sanctioned a peon to the Tahsildar" should be "for the Tahsildar". "Petitioner wants that the land should be transferred" is wrong. It should be "wants the land transferred"/ to be transferred.

XI. Disposals

63. Different kinds of disposals: -
Disposals are of the following classes: -

R., D., L., N. and F. R. (Retain") Disposals are those that are to be retained permanently. D. ("Destroy") Disposals are those that are to destroyed after ten years (in a few cases after twenty) as laid down in the Board's Standing Orders. L.("Lodge") Disposals are whose that are to be destroyed after a year. N. Disposals are those that are to be sent out in original (for example, when the disposal takes the form of an endorsement on a communication received from outside, which communication is returned, or forwarded, bearing such endorsement). F. Disposals are those that are filed (see Section on filing below). "X" marked on a disposal means that it is not to be registered. This may be prefixed to an "N'' Disposal -"XN. Disposal" or to an L. Disposal- "X.L. Disposal". All R. and D. Disposals are indexed, and therefore necessarily registered. Government Orders and Board's proceedings marked F are never registered, but are indexed if marked "F.I".

Note: -
No paper which requires action in the Revenue Department such as an application for land by whomsoever received, should be marked "XN.Dis" A number should be assigned to it.

[Note: Offices of Heads of Departments should list out their special records/registers (including those created in their subordinate offices) peculiar to the nature of work done by them (viz., not covered by paras 63,65 and Appendix 'D' & 'J') and prescribe suitable periods of retention based upon their estimated period of utility for reference and get such special record-retention schedules approved by the concerned administrative departments of Secretariat - Added by GO.Ms.No.351, GA.D. (Ser.-C), Dt. 27-12-82.]

64. Disposal number under this system: -
Under the Disposal Number System-as its name implies-a fresh number as assigned to a file after disposal, and it was entered in a register, called the Disposal Register, or Disposal List. All this is done away with under the "Tottenham" system. No new number is given to a paper on disposal, but the letter "R", "D", "L", "N" is prefixed to its "Current" number or it is marked "F'. The same letter is entered in the disposal column of the Personal Register, with the date of disposal, and on the index slip if the disposal is indexed.

65. Disposal jackets: -
R. and D. Disposals are put into brown paper "Disposal Jackets". On the outside of these are boldly marked the name of the department and office, the number of the current, preceded by the letter R. or D., the date of disposal, the number of pages in the file, and the year of destruction if the file is a D. Disposal to be kept more than ten years. Nothing else is to be written on the outside of the jacket, nor is the despatch seal to be stamped on it. No purport or "Title" is to be written on the jacket. Dates of fair-copying, etc., are not to be noted on it.

On the inside of the jacket the "Back numbers" (that is, the numbers of previous files bearing on the same subject or closely connected subjects which are likely to be required for reference should the disposal itself ever be referred to in the future) should be carefully marked; and similarly, the number of the disposal should be marked as a "Forward Number" on the inside of the jackets of all the "Back Number" file. This "Chaining" is most important. In the case of R. and D. Disposals the subject clerks will attend to it. It the case of filed papers, the entries will be made by the record-keeper on the papers themselves as they have no jackets. K. and L. Disposals also have no jackets, but in their case no chaining is necessary. In the case of "N" Disposals, either the gist, or if the precise wording is important a copy of the "N􀁓' Disposal must be entered in the disposal' column of the personal register.

66. Premature Disposals: -
The practice of closing a current merely because it has been pending a long time and opening a new current is most pernicious and is strictly prohibited. Great care must also be taken that no communication to which a reply is expected is given a disposal. Such irregular disposals either falsify the statistics of pendency, or render it impossible to watch for and enforce the submission of replies to references or both. Such irregularities are very serious. On the other hand, a disposal should be given to every communication that closes a file. The practice of treating such communications as references, and subsequently recording them, is an absurd waste of time.

NOTE: A disposal given to land acquisition case when the draft declaration is submitted to Government is not a premature disposal, as it has been authorised by the Board in its Proceedings No. 75, dated 29th September, 1920.

67. Lodged Disposals: -
Under the disposal number system, it has been usual to waste time in this way as a matter of course in the case of lodged files. Where a communication issued and after that the papers are lodged it has been usual to issue the communication as a reference and then to put up the file again to be lodged, thus unnecessarily troubling the head of the office or someone on his behalf with the same file twice over. Such a communication will be marked "L.Dis” and the papers retained in the office will be marked in the same way and will be sent to the record room after the communication has been despatched, without any further orders.

68. Call Book: -
The orders in the next paragraph may be regarded as to some extent a qualification of the orders in Paragraph 66 above.

The Board and Govemment sometimes call for a report to be submitted after a year or so e.g., on the working of some rules, or on the adequacy of some establishment, or the need for retaining it. Sometimes the Collector may call for such reports from his subordinate officers. Such "calls" need not be kept "open" till the time reply to them arrives. They may be closed as soon as everything that can immediately be done has been done and will then be entered in a separate register in Form VIII given in Appendix B, so that they may not be lost sight of. The same thing may be done when a paper cannot be disposed of till a suit is decided, which may take years, and in other similar cases.

No paper should however be transferred to the Call Book unless no action (not even the issue of reminders or the receipt and filing of replies on it) is due in the office for a period of six months, whether that period ends with a half year or goes beyond it.

There should be only one common Call Book for the whole office, the entries in it being made consecutively with the letter the number of the concerned clerk against each entry. It should be in the custody of the tappal clerk who will be responsible for its proper maintenance. When it is necessary to transfer a case to the Call Book, the subject clerk should send his personal register to the tappal clerk who will enter in the last column of that register the Call Book number and date, round off the current number in the personal register and return it to the same time be rounded off in the new case register with the Call Book number and date noted in column 3 thereof. As soon as this is done, the file concerned should be put in a blue jacket loosely filed and sent to the record-keeper who will acknowledge it in the last column of the New Case Register and place it in a Self in the record room reserved of the Call Book files and thereafter the file will be subject to the rules governing the receipt into and issue from the record room.

When the time for action as noted in column 5 of the Call Book arrives, the tappal clerk should prepare an extract and sent it to the subject clerk in time for action. At the same time the current number being revived (i.e., re-entered therein accompanied by a fresh new case number, Column 2 of the personal register should, in these cases be filled up as follows: -

4847/3584 where 4847 is the new case number on revival and 3584 is the original current number. (In the correspondence taking place after the current is revived, the current number assigned at the revival should. be quoted.) As soon as this is done the entry in the Call Book should be rounded off with the "fresh new case number and date of revival in the personal register" noted in the last column. Suit papers, except those relating to land acquisition should be transferred at the stage, when they pass out of the Collector's hands to a separate Call Book, styled "Register of Suits pending in Courts". This should be maintained in the form of the personal register given in Appendix B to the Manual, with one page to a Suit. Land Acquisition Suit papers should be entered in another Call Book styled "Register of Suits in Land Acquisition Cases" in the same form. These separate Call Books will be in the custody of the subject clerks concerned who will be responsible for their maintenance. The Suit papers also will be retained by them until they are finally disposed of. Subject to these modifications the instructions in sub-paragraphs 2 and 3 above regarding the maintenance of the common Call Book will apply to the maintenance of the separate Call Books also. (GO.Ms.No.370, GA. (Ser. C), dated 30-3-1964)

70. Periodicals: -
No periodicals should be entered in the Personal Register (except in the circumstances explained below) or be indexed, as such. Every periodical due to or by the office is assigned a number in list of periodicals. This number is permanent one-that is, it does not vary from year to year. Where an outgoing periodical is compiled from, or is identical with, an in-coming periodical, the same number will be assigned to both the out-going and in-coming periodicals. Ordinarily, an in-coming or out-going periodical will merely be entered in the Periodical Register (for form see Appendix B), the only entries or despatch or both. If any correspondence should arise in connection with a periodical, a separate current will be opened in connection with it in the appropriate Personal Register, and the number of the return will be entered in the "purport" column in that register, which the Current Number will be entered in the Periodical Register, in the latter column. Reminders relating to periodicals will also be entered in the latter column.

Each subject clerk should maintain a periodical register for returns due to and from him. The clerk, in filling up the heading of this register at the beginning of the year, should leave sufficient space to allow of the complete entries for the year being inserted under one heading. This is particularly necessary in the case of returns which are received from a large number of subordinates and at comparatively short intervals, e.g., monthly or fortnightly. In such cases a number of pages may be required. Appendix B, Form XII, shows as economical way of entering monthly return received from a number of subordinate offices. Printed or typed slips might be pasted in the Periodical Register for this purpose, if manuscript takes up too much space.

71. Periodicals not given disposals nor indexed: -
Periodicals will in no case be given a R.D. or L. Disposal. They will simply be filed that is, they will be arranged in an annual bundle in which their order wi11 be determined by the periodical number referred to in the last paragraph. They need not obviously be indexed, as this arrangement is, "self-indexing" that is to say, one knows where to find a given periodical of any year without referring to any register, unless it be to refresh one's memory as to the number of the periodical required.

XII. Fair Copying and Despatch

72. Fair-Copying: -
As soon as draft has been approved, the clerk dealing with the file will send the approved office-copy to the Superintendent, Fair-Copying Section, with all enclosures that are to accompany it. The clerk will first see that full instructions are noted on the draft, such as, whether it is a reference or a disposal and if a disposal, its nature R., D., L., or N., the person or persons to whom it is to be sent, and if the whole of it is not to be communicated to all of them, the portions to be communicated to each; the enclosures that are to accompany it, whether any, and if so how many spare copies are required for any purpose, whether the communication should be sent by registered post and if so, whether the addressee's acknowledgement is necessary and whether it is urgent, or very urgent. If it is a "Retain" or ''Destroy" disposal, one of the two index slips prepared in accordance with the instructions in Paragraph 100 below will be attached to the disposal. When final disposals are sent to the Superintendent, Fair-Copying Section, the clerk should obtain his initials in the last column of the Personal Register.

The Superintended, Fair-Copying Section, will see that all the necessary instructions have been noted on the office-copy and whether in the case of a "R" or ''D" Disposal, an index slip has been attached to it and will enter it in the Fair-Copying Register. He will then give it to the typist to be typed, at the same time giving him any instructions that may be necessary or calling his attention to any point of importance. If any other papers have to be copied and sent as enclosures to the draft, he will hand these over to the typist, with such instructions as may be· necessary.

The typist will type and drafts in the order in which he receives them, except of course that urgent papers will take precedence of those that are not urgent, and very urgent papers of those that are merely urgent. At the head of every fair-copy will be typed the words "In all future correspondence please quote number (here the Section letter, clerk's number if there is one, and current number, preceded, if it is a disposal, by R.D. or L. will be typed, and the Title". A scale showing the number of copies required by each Revenue Divisional Officer, Taluk Officer, etc., for communication to their subordinate staff should be worked out and kept for use in the fair-copying Section. It is the duty of the Superintendent, Fair-Copying Section to see that in all cases in which 'A' class despatch is indicated, sufficient number of copies are prepared and despatched to the subordinate officer concerned.

74. It is the duty:
of the Superintendent, Fair-Copying Section to see that the papers are typed, sent for signature to the Collector or the officer signing for the Collector, and on receipt after signature, despatched with the least possible delay, and that the date on which each of these stages is reached is promptly and correctly entered in the appropriate column of the Fair Copy Register. It is also his duty to see that carbon copies and duplicated copies are legible. He will make such arrangements in regard to the comparing of fair-copies as may be ordered from time to time by the Collector. Fair-copies will not be examined by the "subject-clerks" concerned, as this lead to great delay in despatch besides interrupting and delaying the work of the clerks. At the foot of every fair-copy the typist who typed it will type his initials, to which will be appended after a hyphen, the letter "A" or "P'' according as the paper reaches him before or after 1 p.m. and the date on which it reached him.

After signature the papers will be returned to the Superintendent, Fair-Copying Section, who will hand them over to the despatcher for despatch. He will enter his initials and date of despatch in the proper column of the Fair-Copying Register. Before despatch the papers will be tagged together in the usual way in a single file, arranged with the fair copy on top, and beneath it any enclosures, statements, etc., that are to accompany it. Papers will be folded once lengthwise (except communications consisting of a single sheet of fullscape which may be folded twice breadthwise), and put into the smallest envelope that will conveniently hold them when so folded. Enclosures such as maps, sketches, and plans which cannot be easily folded book form, or are liable to be damaged by folding, must be detached from the file and sent separately.

76. Envelopes, size etc.: -
Confidential papers must be placed in double envelopes the inner one alone marked "Confidential" and subscribed with the addressee's name and the outer one bearing the official designation and address of the officer for whom it is intended. All urgent communications to Government and the Board must be marked ''urgent" in "red ink on -the envelope as well as the communication itself. Letters, etc., to be sent by post must be weighed and properly stamped. They must also be franked, with full and dated signature of the despatcher.

77. Valuables: -
Valuables intended for despatch to other offices will be put into envelopes or packets, it the presence of the Superintendent, Fair-Copying Section. A description of such valuables must not be endorsed on the outside of the envelope; in fact, the contents of "covers" (the numbers of the communications enclosed in them) should never be written on them. There is no advantage in doing so. A certificate of posting will be obtained for each letter or packet containing valuables, unless it is sent by registered post. Such certificates and the receipts for registered letters, etc., will be carefully filed in the Fair-Copying Section:

78. No despatch Register-Despatch by Post and Local Delivery Book: -
As stated in Paragraph 22 above, no Despatch Register is to be maintained other than the Fair-Copy Register. Letters, etc., intended for officers and other living in headquarters will as far as possible, be delivered by the office peons, and not be sent by post. They will be entered in the "Despatch by Post and Local Delivery Book", in which the signature of the person to whom they are delivered will be taken in the column intended for the purpose. The despatching clerk will, examine the "Despatch by Post and Local Delivery Book" daily and see that the letters, etc., entered in it have been delivered and acknowledged.

79. Despatch: -
The despatch-stamp is to be stamped on the office copy, if there is one. In the case of "N" References, it will be stamped on the ''N" Reference slip, in the case of other references of which no office copy is kept on the Note-file if there is one, and if there is no Note-file on the page of the Current file on which the order to issue, or the gist of the reference is recorded. When an "N" Disposal is issued, the despatch stamp will be stamped against the number in the Fair-copying Register if the disposal has been entered in it. If it has not been so entered, the despatch-stamp must be stamped in the disposal column of the Personal Register against the corresponding entry. In the case of an "X.N. Disposal" it cannot obviously be stamped anywhere, unless the disposal has been entered in the Fair-Copying Register, which is practically certain never to occur. Instructions in regard to the maintenance of the stamp account will be found in Paragraph 24 above.

XIII – Records

80. Arrangement of records after disposal: -
(1) After a disposal other than an "N" Disposal has been despatched, the file will be sent to the record-keeper by the Superintendent, Fair-Copying Section. The record-keeper will acknowledge it in the list column of the New Case Register. He will see that the files are in order, properly arranged with their pages numbered (the current file in red ink, and the note-file in black ink, as already ordered-the pages will not be renumbered after disposal in one continuous series for current and notes), the jackets, if they are "R" or ''D" Disposals, properly marked on the outside, and the back and forward numbers marked insides the jackets as directed in Paragraph 65 above. He will also scrutinize the pages of the files for signs of stamps having been removed. He will detach the index slips from the R. and D. Disposals and file them in his bundles in the manner laid down in paragraphs 101 and 103 below. He will then put the disposals away in their proper order.

[(2) At the initial stage of sending disposals in the 'L-Dis' and any other Series with limited periods of retention for less than ten years, it should be examined closely whether a disposal needs to be re-scrutinized after the prescribed period of retention to be certified as fit for destruction or for further retention. The docket sheet of each such disposal to be sent to the Record Room should, therefore, carry a certificate thereon as shown hereunder, with the words not applicable to a disposal having been struck off: -

"To be destroyed straightway / sent back for rescrutiny / in the year ................. after the prescribed retention period." The disposals carrying the certificate "To be destroyed straightway in the year ............ i.e., after the prescribed retention period." On their docket sheets should be destroyed by the records-rooms soon after completion of prescribed period of retention, without sending them back for review. However, on account of any new development even such records can be called for (any time before destruction) from the Records Room and the certificate revised to require retention for a further period or to be sent for re-scrutiny after a specified period, etc. - Added by GO.Ms. No. 351, GA.D. (Ser. - C), dt. 27-12-82]

81. Disposal Bundles: -
There will be separate series of bundles for “R”, “D” and “L” Disposals, respectively, and in these the files, or papers, will be arranged in order of their current numbers. These will of-course not form a continuous series in any one bundle, but that is quite immaterial, and will not give rise to any difficulty in finding any particular paper of file if its number is known, and it is in its proper bundle and in the proper place in the bundle. “X.L. Disposal” papers, which have no numbers, can only be arranged chronologically, their order being determined by the date on which they were disposed of. The arrangement of “Filed” papers will be explained below in paragraphs on filing. After he has put a disposal away in its place the record-keeper will put away in their places any papers that were “put-up” with it for reference. marking them as received back in the “Record Issue Register'”. He will also remove the dummy slips put in their places on the racks.

[Records should be arranged in the order of their current numbers, as detailed below, but put in year-wise bundles based upon the year of disposal, so that by looking at-the year-tag of the bundle it can be known whether or not the records therein have completed their prescribed period of retention without having to look into each record to know that-

Model arrangement of Records in bundle: -
Bundles of D. Dis.1974 (All disposed in the year 1974)

C.Nos. of l 970, 1971, 1972 & 1973

1. D.Dis 200/73/Estt.I. Dt.10-5-74.
2. D.Dis 206/72/Lr., Dt.15-6-74.
3. D.Dis 210/71//Cs., Dt.10-10-74.
4. D.-Dis 210/70/Lr., Dt. 20-11-74.
5. D.-Dis 212/72/Estt.I. Dt.10-6-74.

The above method of arrangement of records in a bundle should be adopted in respect of records under all series like L.Dis., D.Dis., ‘R’ etc. - Added by GO.Ms. No. 351, GA.D. (Ser.-C), dt.27-12-82]

82. Filing-Definition: -
Papers which are arranged in records, not in the R., D., or L. bundles according to their current numbers, but in special bundles according to their subjects, are said to be "filed". They should be kept loose, arranged according to their own numbers or chronologically, as explained below, between record boards, just as lodged papers were kept under the old system. Of these papers there are five classes which are dealt with below.

83. Government Orders and Board’s Proceedings: -
All Government Orders and Proceedings of the Board of Revenue on which no specific action has to be taken, or no action beyond communicating them to officers’ subordinate to the Collector for “information and a guidance” (and very large numbers of such orders and proceedings are received in most offices) will generally be filed. Government Orders and Board's Proceedings which contain reviews on periodicals or are connected with them may be filed with the connected periodicals, and those which are of purely ephemeral interest and do not deal with questions of policy and principle or important matters of fact may be given the appropriate disposal (generally “L.Dis.” but occasionally “F”) which they would get if 'they did not emanate from the Board or Government.

A separate bundle will be opened in the record-room for each series of Government Orders, or Board's Proceedings e.g., one for Government Orders, Revenue Department; another for Government Orders, Finance Department; another for Proceedings of the Board of Revenue, Separate Revenue, and so on. In these bundles, the Government Orders or Board's Proceedings will be arranged according to their own numbers, that is to say, G.O.No.100, Revenue, will come before G.O.No.120 Revenue, and the latter will come before G.O.No.136, Revenue, and so on.

84. Filed papers not registered-When indexed: -
As already stated, these papers will not be registered at all in the personal registers. There is obviously no object in doing so. We register papers in order to watch correspondence relating to them, or in orders to have a number to arrange them by in our records. In these cases, there is Ex Hypothesis no correspondence to be watched, and as for the arrangement of the papers, they already have their own numbers, which are just as convenient to arrange them by as any others. Such papers will be indexed if they are marked “I” by competent authority.

Papers which are to be filed in this way will be marked “F”. If they are not marked “F” by the Collector, or Officer signing for the Collector, just like any other disposal. After "F" the number of the “File” will be written boldly. A list of “Record Files” will be found in Appendix ‘D’. This list must be adopted in all the Revenue offices. It is not to be regarded as final, since it is inevitable that additions or deletions may be necessary from time to time. But changes in it should be made only in consultation with the Board of Revenue. Most of these papers will be marked "F'' at once by the officer opening the tappal no doubt. These papers will not be put in brown paper jackets, which is a mere waste of stationery and space.

85. Saving of work compared with Disposal Number System: -
Under the Disposal Number System, every one of these papers was entered first in a Current Register, then probably in a Distribution register, then in a Personal Register, in the first and last of which a purport (usually lengthy) was entered, then put into a jacket on which the purport was written again, then given a disposal number, and entered in a disposal register, in which the purport was written again and if of importance it was also indexed, and the purport was written again. It will readily be seen how much time and labour is saved by the new system.

86. Periodicals: -
There will be a periodical bundle for each year, and in it the different kinds of periodical returns will be arranged in sub bundles. The sub-bundles will be arranged according to the periodical numbers (Paragraph 70 above) and the individual periodicals will be arranged in the sub-bundles, chronologically. Which and out-going return will be filed any in-coming return, or returns from which it is compiled, and correspondence that has arisen in connection with it.

87. General Record Files: -
Some other classes of papers should be dealt with on the same principles. These are either papers which it is convenient to keep together for purposes of reference (for example, papers relating to appointments and leave), or circulars and communiques in respect of which the remarks in the last paragraph above Government Orders and Proceedings of the Board of Revenue are applicable or papers which would ordinarily be lodged; but which it is convenient to keep in a separate bundle to facilitate reference to them when it may be found necessary. Suitable) opportunities for extending this system should be watched for, as its extension saves work. In these General Record files, the papers will be arranged according to their own numbers when that is feasible i.e., when the contents of a bundle consist of one series of communications with their own numbers-and otherwise chronologically.

88. Abkari Shop Files: -
Papers relating to arrack, toddy, opium and ganja shops will also be arranged under the filing system with reference to each individual shop. A shop numbering register will be maintained. In this register the name or description of each shop will be entered serially. This is permanent register and the number assigned to each shop in this register is also a permanent number. When a new shop is opened, it should be numbered consecutively in the numbering register.

All the correspondence relating to the solvency of the bidder for a given shop, the selection of a site for the shop, and the issue of a licence for it, and similar matters will, as far as possible, be grouped in a single file bearing the number of the shop preceded by the letters. “A.S (arrack shop), "T.S” (toddy shop), “GS” (Ganja shop) or “OS” (opium shop) according to circumstances. The same number will be marked on all the correspondence relating to the shop. The Tahsildars will submit separate solvency reports for each shop-keeper, instead of dealing with a large number of bidders in a single report. The latter system is extremely inconvenient and makes the file very bulky and almost unintelligible. Where the same man has taken more than one shop, the solvency report will be filed in the file of the shop bearing to earliest number, and references to this file will be noted in all the other files concerned. Strictly speaking, there should be a separate report for each shop but in these cases, where one man has taken more than one shop, this would lead to reduplication of work.

89. "Abkari" correspondence to be registered: -
All papers relating to bidders' solvency, shops, sites, or the issue of licences for shops should be registered. They should subsequently be filed with the shop file, as laid down in Paragraph 88 above. Where no such file is kept in a district office, it should be kept in future. Both the shop file number and the current number will appear in all papers, e.g., "T.S. 26 C 428-20" where "T.S. 26" means that the paper relates to toddy shop No. 26, "C" is the Section letter, "428" is the person register current and "20" is the year.

90. Passport applications: -
Applications for passports and visas and corrections thereto should be registered in the personal registers of the clerk in the District Magistrate·􀂀 office who deals with them in the ordinary course.

91. Roneo Number - Alpha System of Filing: -
This system may be used for confidential papers that the Collector keeps in his own custody and other papers that he wishes to refer to frequently. It is useful for demi-official correspondence as it enables such correspondence to be numbered without being registered and to be found when required without being indexed. This system of filing requires special furniture in the shape of a filing case with one or more drawers in which files of foolscape size can be arranged vertically with a "Compressor", that is, a sliding support to keep them upright. A vertical, as opposed to horizontal system of filing, is one in which the files are not laid one above the other, horizontally, on shelves but are kept side by side, vertically. Under this system there is no separate index. The papers themselves are kept in numbered ''folders"- card-board wrappers-line the cover of a book but with one flap projecting further than the other and provided with tabs numbered either from 1 to 5 or from 6 to 9 and 10.

These folders are placed vertically in the special case or drawer back downwards. They are separated by a number of red cards called guides. There is a guide for a letter of the alphabet or for a subdivision of the alphabet according to the needs of different officers. The letter, or the subdivision of the alphabet, is shown on a celluloid tab attached to the top edge of the guide. There are cages numbered from 1 to 30 ruled on the guide.

When the first paper is to be filed the appropriate guide is taken out and the subject were "Archaeology", the guide bearing the tab inscribed “A” or possibly “A1 to At” (according to the subdivision of the alphabet in use) would be taken, and the subject would be entered in the cage numbered 1 on it. A folder would be taken all the tabs except that bearing the same number as the case (viz. 1) would be cut off, the paper would be placed in the folder and the red guide would be placed in the proper order in the receptacle with reference to the other red guides, and the folder next to i.e., behind it. Should a paper of which the subject is "Arms Act" be the next paper to be filed falling under the same letter or subdivision of the alphabet "Arms Act" is entered in case 2, the paper is placed in a folder from which all the tabs except No.2 have been removed, and the folder is placed next to folder No.1 i.e., behind it.

There is a blue miscellaneous folder for each guide. In this will be field correspondence relating to subjects or correspondents for which or whom it is not worthwhile to open separate folders. These blue folders bear the abbreviation “Mis” and the number of the corresponding guide card correspondence filed in them will also be numbered “Mis. No.” the numbers being that of the folder. If necessary, here also the individual cases in a single folder may be given numbers. All the papers in a folder will not relate to the same individual case, though they will all relate to the same general subject. Papers relating to the same individual case should be tagged together. The subject of each such case should be noted inside the folder (there is sometimes a printed cage there for that purpose), and these subjects should be numbered serially. The reference to be marked on an individual out-going letter, and also on each letter received will always consist of three numbers separated by dashes for example, “12-4-5” where “12” is the number on the guide (it will be noticed that number on the folder and "5" is the number assigned to the individual case within the folder as just described.

92. Confidential records: -
Confidential records which the Collector does not think it necessary to retain in his own custody will be kept by the Sarishtadar in an almirah of which he will keep the key. They will be registered in the ordinary way but no title will be entered in the register. It will be replaced by the word "Confidential". Confidential correspondence with which the Collector deals himself will be filed either in the Roneo number-alpha vertical-filings case or in the Collector's confidential almirah. The latter should be divided into pigeon-holes. Each pigeon-hole should have a number (Roman) and be allotted to a certain general subject e.g., “Titles”, “Deputy Collector's List”, “Political”. A list should be kept in the almirah, pasted on card-board, showing the subject to which each pigeon-hold is allotted. In each pigeon-hole the papers should be made up into one or more files, as may be convenient.

These files should have sub-numbers [e.g., in pigeon-hole No. XIV, the sub-numbers will be XIV (1) XIV (2) and so on]. The pages of each file should be numbered. An out-going letter will bear the number of the pigeon-hole followed by that of the file followed by that of the page of the file where the office copy will be found [e.g., XIV (2), 248, where XIV is the number of the pigeon-hole, (2) is the number of the file in that pigeon-hole, and 248 is the number of the page in the file where the office copy is to be found]. There should be a card-index in this almirah. Each card should bear the name of a person or a subject, followed by reference to the papers in the various files relating to the subject or person in question, indicated as just explained [e.g., Ramanna, AB.11-(3)-28, V( l)XIV-(3)-297].

93. Demi-Official Correspondence: -
Demi-Official Correspondence which is kept by the Collector, and is not filed in any current file, will be dealt with in the same way as the Collector's confidential correspondence. It will usually be filed in the Roneo file as long as it is "current" or like to be required for reference frequently and after that either destroyed or transferred to the Collector's confidential almirah. The Roneo file will also be used to keep ant other papers that the Collector may at any time require for reference such as the Special Branch file, the Public Service notification, the Establishment List, Office Orders, Income-tax Circulars, etc.

94. Vertical filing of records: -
All records will be filed on the record racks vertically that is, side by side, on edge not filed on_ top of one another (or "horizontally"). The vertical arrangement makes it much easier to take out records and replace them. Instead of having to take down a heavy pile of records, search for the one required, take it out, and then replace the pile on the shelf, one merely has to separate the files lightly to enable one to see their numbers, and can take out the file required without further disturbing the others. This is the obvious way to keep records. It is the way one keeps books in a library. No one would dream of keeping books plied in heaps, one on the top of the other, so that one could not get at one book without moving a few dozen others, and there is no reason why files should be arranged in such an inconvenient way either. [Records bundles may be preserved on steel racks in all possible cases - Added by GO.Ms.No.351, GA.D. (Ser.-C), dt. 27-12-82].

95. Issue of Records: -
Clerks are not to enter the record room and take out records for themselves. They must obtain records required for reference by sending the prescribed printed requisition slips properly filled in to the record-keeper. On receipt of the requisition slips in the record room, the record-keeper will see that the records are promptly taken out, that the slips are put in their places and that the records issued are entered in the record issue register which wil1 be in Form XI of Appendix B. The record, issue register and the records taken out will then be sent to the concerned clerk who will at once acknowledge the receipt of the records in the register and return it to the record-keeper. When the record-keeper receives records back, he will see that their receipt is duly entered in the record-issue register and that the requisition slips are returned forthwith. In case the record wanted is not found, the requisition slips should be returned to the concerned clerk with an entry to that effect. The clerks must return records that have been taken out for reference directly after they are done with. The record-keeper is solely responsible for the proper maintenance of the record-issue register and he must see that the records taken out of the record- room are not kept back by clerks unnecessarily.

To ensure the regular and systematic return of records to the record room, the record-keeper should prepare on the first of every month an arrear list for each Section for all records which have been absent from the record-room for more than three months together with the name and designation of the clerks to whom each record was issued and the date of its issue. He should at the same time furnish an extract from the arrear lists separately to each clerk to enable him to check whether the files referred to are still with him and to return them when no longer required for reference. A new requisition slip should be taken whenever a file or book has to be retained for more than three months since the earlier slip and issued.

When the record-keeper has to get back a document which has been filed in a Civil Court, he should note on the requisition slip and in column 10 of the Record-Issue Register 'sent to Civil Court, vide Current No ............. Such slips need not be renewed.

Clerks should return their arrear lists promptly to the record-keeper after taking the necessary action. The record-keeper should then compare the consolidated arrear list with the clerk's arrear list, carry out the necessary alterations in the former and submit both the arrear lists to the Collector on the 10th of every month or if that is a holiday or Sunday, on the first working day after the 10th.

In order to save the time of the subject clerks involved in returning the records to Record-Room and to ensure safety of the Records, each subject clerk should maintain a Note book in the form shown in Appendix “L” for the return of records to the Record-Rooms. The Record Attender should go round the office once or twice a day and collect the borrowed records from the clerks initialling in this note book maintained by them in token of having received back the records from them. At the same time the Record Attender or the Record Assistant will take with him the: Record-Issue Register get column 7 filled up and obtain the signature of clerks in column 8 in token of the clerk's returning the files. (GO.Ms.No.417, GA. (Services-C) Department, dated 4th April 1963, B.P. Press, 3/63, dated 24th April, 1963.)

96. Custody of the key of the Record-Room: -
The record-keeper is on no account to take the key of the record-room home with him. He will each evening put in a bag, seal it, and hand it over to the police guard or to the night watchman in places where there is no police guard. The office seal should be in the safe custody of the record-keeper after the closing of the record room. The next day when the record-keeper or his assistant takes over the bag containing the key of the record-room, he should verify whether the seal of the bag is intact. The office seal affixed to the bag should be in the custody of the record-keeper. On no account the seal of the office should be made available to others. A register in Form-XIII of Appendix-B should be maintained for the purpose. [Fire Extinguishers and a few buckets with sand may invariably be maintained at the Record-Room as an essential precaution against firs accidents - Added by GO.Ms.No. 351, GA.D. (Ser.-C), dt. 27-12-82]

97. Destruct ion of Records: -
(1) Records must be destroyed punctually after the periods prescribed for records dealt with under the disposal number system in the Board's Standing Orders. Lodged papers will be destroyed after one year. No. detailed list of them will be prepared, but a list of the classes of records to be destroyed ("Lodged Disposals of 19. D. Disposals of 19 "except Nos ......... " and so on) will be put up and approved by the Collector. The entry ''D" before the disposal numbers will be altered by substituting "R" on the jackets of the files ordered to be retained permanently by the Collector. If the Collector orders that a "D" Disposal file retained not permanently, but till a certain year, the file will be transferred to the "D" disposal bundle of papers rips for destruction that year, the fact being noted on the jacket. After the papers have been destroyed, the Sarishtadar will certify at the foot of the list of records to be destroyed that the papers in the list have been destroyed, except such as have been ordered to be retained permanently or for a certain period, Which files will be specified by their numbers. These lists will be carefully filed and preserved in the record room in a special bundle.

[(2) Permanent Records Classified under 'R' series or under any other particular category in use in an office, requiring permanent retention should be subjection to re-scrutiny once after every fifty years after their creation or after a lesser or higher period, as may be determined on review after the lapse of the first spell of 50 years, so that such of them not found them to require further retention could be got destroyed (after retaining a brief record of their particulars such as number, date etc.) to realise additional space for proper preservation of new/other records. Destruction of 'R' Records found as no longer needed after such review should not, however, be made straightway except after obtaining specific concurrence of the next higher authority of the office in which such records were created and after giving intimation to the Director of State Archives.

Particulars of such of the permanent records as are found not requiring further retention on such re-scrutiny should be intimated to the Director of State Archives, so that he could depute his staff within a specific period to examine them and indicate whether any of them would be needed to be preserved further for research purposes from historical cultural and other archival point of view, so that the rest could be destroyed - Added by GO.Ms.No. 351, GA.D. (Ser.-C), dt. 27-12-82.]

98. Destruction of Filed Records: -
Abkari shop files will be kept for ten years. In regard to the general destruction of record files, the record files should be retained for the period noted against each record file as shown in Appendix ‘D’. Filed Government orders and Board's proceedings will be regarded as ‘R’ disposals if they have been indexed. Periodicals will be dealt with according to the orders in the Board's Standing Orders. The registers mentioned in Chapter V will be destroyed after the periods specified against them in Appendix J.

XIV. Indexing and Titles

99. Introductory-Indexing under the Disposal Number System:
Indexing is of the utmost importance. Under the Disposal Number System, it was not at all satisfactory. There were no instructions laying down the general principles to be observed, and there was no comprehensive list of standard index headings. The word was left to a low-paid clerk, and as the files were indexed after disposal his work was subject to little or no supervision. As he was without knowledge, instruction or guidance, he naturally did the work very badly. Long rambling ‘purports’ were the rule which told you much that you did not want to know, and probably omitted just what was important. They were not framed so that their gist at once caught the eye, and as the index was written in a volume instead of on slips or cards, they could not be arranged in strict alphabetical order. Finally, there were no definite orders as to what papers should be indexed and consequently rubbish was indexed in large quantities while important papers were as likely as not to be omitted.

100. System described: -
(1) Under the system here described the clerk has, when putting up a current for final orders, to make up his mind whether the paper is one which requires -

(a) a "R" Disposal, i.e., to be permanently retained,
(b) a "D" Disposal, i.e., to be retained for ten years,
(c) a "L" Disposal, i.e., to be retained for one year, and must indicate by means of these signs the method of disposal he considers necessary.

NOTE: All “R” and “D” Disposals must in any case be Indexed.

(2) As already explained in Paragraph 58, above it is the duty of the Section head to initial the above entries in token that he agrees with the method of disposal suggested or in case he does not agree to revise the entry: Provided That in the case of disposals which are proposed to be classified under ‘R’ series, specific orders should be obtained from an officer atleast next below the rank of the Head of a Department or Head of the Office, who should examine such classification and approve or revise it - Added by GO.Ms.No.351, G.A.D. (Ser.-C), dt. 27-12-82.

(3) On return of the file with final orders the clerk must prepare index slips in duplicate and note upon them the current number and the nature and date of disposal. Thereupon one slip will be attached to the disposal and sent to the recordkeeper through the fair-Copying superintendent as described in Paragraphs 72 and 80 above and the other kept by the clerk. Thus, each clerk has an index of his disposal files which he should arrange alphabetically and to which he can refer at any time in order to find out whether such files have any bearing upon his current work.

(4) The index title will correspond with the heading of the final draft and it should ordinarily be identical with the entry made in the personal register on registration as described in Paragraph 29 above. When these entries are found, when the file is rips for disposal, to be unsuitable, the original entry in column 4 of the personal register should be re-written in red ink. The orders of the Head of the Section should be obtained for such revision. Great care should be taken to see that the heading and title as finally drafted comply with all the requirements of an index title as explained in Paragraphs 105 to 116 especially as regards major head and arrangement and the slips should be written legibly.

These titles are prepared in accordance with certain definite rules, which will be found in the succeeding paragraphs, and a voluminous and exhaustive list of standard heads has been compiled which will be found in Appendix-A. Adherence to these rules, and to the list of standard heads will ensure that the index titles are prepared on reasonable and consistent principles, that they are so framed, that their gist catches the eye at once and that they are susceptible of strict alphabetical arrangement. Such an arrangement of the titles is rendered possible by the system of writing each title on a separate slip. These slips are punched with two holes by means of which they are filed in strict alphabetical order with two of Mr. Tottenham’s special index tags, between two little cardboard covers, or ‘binders’ similarly punched. They are thus filed on the “loose-leaf system”, which permits of a fresh leaf being, inserted in its proper order at any point. The two tags are threaded through from the same side, so that the two cross tags are at the bottom. The other two ends are tied in a bow on top. These index volumes are kept in wooden trays.

102. Filing of Index Slips: -
In the record room the slips are filed in one combined index for the whole office. When one of these little volumes of slips becomes so bulky that the tags cannot easily and quickly be passed through it, it will be broken up into smaller volumes. Each such volume will be labelled, e.g., “A-1, A.L”. or in the record-keeper's index simply “A-C”. It will be noted that the slips will be filed in one continuous series till the index is printed or typed which will be done annua1ly. It will be printed or typed as the case may be direct from the slips. After it has been printed or typed the "R" and "D" Disposal slips will be destroyed.

103. Titles prefixed to all drafts: -
The title is written on every draft after the word "Sir" or “Gentleman” as already mentioned, and if a current is indexed it is marked “I”. Thus, instead of the indexing being left to the discretion of a junior clerk, and that without supervision, it is constantly brought automatically to the notice of the Heads of Sections, the Sarishtadar, and the Collector, who see on every draft the index title, and can modify it if necessary. They can also see whether a file has been indexed on receipt or not, and there is a hard and fast rule that all "R" and "D" Disposals are to be indexed, so that there are satisfactory safeguards against important papers being left unindexed.

104. Importance of prefixing title to all communications: -
It will be observed that the rule that the title of every letter, etc., should be written at the head of it is of great importance from more points of view than one. It is an assistance to the person to whom the letter is addressed, it is an assistance to the issuing office if the correspondent quotes it, as he is requested to (see Paragraph 73) in any subsequent communication, and it enables the indexing to be properly supervised. The rule must not therefore be regarded as a mere bit of meaningless red-tape, but must be strictly and invariably obeyed. Owing to the absence of titles, brief intermediate communications, and sometimes even more important communications, received from other offices are often unintelligible in themselves.

One has to send for the file to understand what they refer to. Similarly, if a letter is received from outside which quotes only the correspondent's number, but not that of the receiving office, there may be some little difficulty in tracing what it refers to especially if the subject is not apparent on the face of the letter, whereas if the number in the receiving office is quoted the file can be traced at once. It is a rule of the first importance when addressing anyone always to quote his number if any communication has previously been received from him on the subject.

105. Title and Head defined: -
In the following Paragraphs detailed instructions are given for the preparation of titles. It is to be remembered that even if a communication is not indexed it is to have its title, and that title is to be prepared exactly as if it were intended for incorporation in the index.

The entry in the index relating to an individual paper is called a ''title". The important word that is placed first in the title, by which its alphabetical position in the index is determined, and on which primarily depends the possibility of finding the title, is calle4 the head.

106. Head must be (a) obvious, (b) distinctive: -
The first thing to do when writing an index title is to select your head. The head must be a word that will naturally occur to ant one who wants the papers. It must not be too wide. For instance, to index all the petitions received in a Collector's office under the head "petitions" would be absurd; though orders of a general nature relating, let us say, to the way in which petitions should be dealt with, would be appropriately indexed under that head.

107. Consistency essential Standard heads and sub-heads unauthorised additions forbidden: -
Next, in selecting your heads you must be consistent. Even if your heads are badly chosen, so long as you are consistent in your use of them less mischief will be done than if they are in themselves better chose, but papers relating to the same subject are indexed sometimes under one head and sometimes under another. Consistency can only be secured by prescribing a standard list of index heads and sub-heads. Such a list is given in Appendix-A.

A copy of the list will be in the hands of every clerk. Clerks must constantly refer to the list. No head or sub-head may be used in any circumstances whatever unless it is included in the list. If any addition to the list, or any modification in it, is found necessary, it may only be made with the sanction in writing of the Collector. Additional legal heads may, however, be selected if required from the lists at the beginning of each volume of Woodman's Digest.

108. Use of Heads and Sub-Heads: -
In the list some of the heads have their sub-heads printed under them. A head may be used alone or in combination with such a sub-head. Such sub-head may not be used without a head. This rule is subject, however, to the instructions printed at the head of the list. Any head may, if appropriate, be used as a subhead under another head. For example, "Budgets" may be used as a subhead under "Land Revenue" or "Abkari," etc.

Under important and wide heads large numbers of sub-heads will be required. Every such sub-head must either be a head or sub-head found in the list, or one included in it under proper authority as laid down above.

110. Use of "General" as Sub-head: -
It has been said that a head may be used alone. The smaller ones will be chiefly so used. Under the larger heads there will be some papers of a general nature. For such, a sub-head "General" may be opened under any head with several subheads. But this sub-head must be sparingly used. No paper for which a more definite and suitable sub-head can be found should be indexed under "General". One legitimate use of the head is when a case falls under several sub-heads. Another is when it falls under none; for instance, there might be a Government Order dealing with the policy to be adopted in regard to abkari generally. This would have to be indexed under "Abkari-General". It is of the utmost importance that a "General" or "Miscellaneous" sub-head under a head should not be used except for legitimate purposes as sketched above. Of course, "General" or "Miscellaneous" should not be used as a head.

111. Local Classification: -
Local classification should be adopted wherever possible. For instance, in indexing papers relating to assignments, leases, etc., of land, to land acquisition or to encroachments, etc., the titles should be arranged thus:-Main Head, Taluk (abbreviated, see Head-note to Appendix-A), village survey number (if known), Petitioner's name followed by his initials, purpose of the acquisition case and finally any other particulars of the in an acquisition case of the nature of the orders, e.g., “Assignment-Darkhast-Warangal Taluk, Mallavaram village-S.No.489-Mallaliah (K)-Refused".

It is specially to be noticed that in employing the local system of classification the larger are (the taluk) must come before the smaller area (the village included in it). Cases in which the survey number is known will be arranged under the village numerically. That is to say, taking the slip given as an example above, all the slips relating to Mallavaram village will come together, under Warangal taluk. Those slips relating to the village will come together, under Warangal taluk. Those slips relating to the village which include a survey number will be arranged first, in order of their survey numbers.

Titles containing the same survey number will all come together, and their order among themselves will be alphabetical, determined by what comes after the survey number in each title. Slips including more survey numbers than one will be arranged according to the first of such numbers a (which must themselves be written in numerical order on the slip) but will come after all the slips that bear only that number. In every important case that relates to more than one number, a slip should be prepared for each number. After all the slips relating to a particular village that contain survey numbers will come, slips that do not contain survey numbers and these will of course be arranged strictly alphabetically.

112. Personal Papers: -
Personal papers relating to officials will be indexed under the name of the officer concerned. A proper title would be e.g., “Subramanya Sastri, D., Sub-Magistrate, Reduced.” “Subrahamanya Sastry” would be indexed under “S” and “Subrahmanya Satri A” would come before "Subramanya Sastry, D. In indexing personal papers, it is of special importance to remember that initials must come after names.

113. Suits: -
Papers relating to ''suits" will be indexed under the head "Suits" thus-First will come the place where the Court suits, then the designation of the Court, then the number of the suit, preceded by appropriate abbreviation "A.S." (Appeal Suit) "O.S." (Original Suit), etc. These abbreviations will be arranged in alphabetical order, and under each the suits will be arranged according to their years and numbers. The years must come before the number. “O.S.1921 – 100” not “O.S. l00- 1921”.

114. Bracketed Heads: -
Heads printed in brackets in the list are not to be used as heads, but only, if necessary, as sub-heads under the alternative heads printed against them. They may not be u ed even so if they are mere synonymous of such alternative heads. Thus, for example, under the head "Allowances", "Exchange compensation" may be, and must be, used as a sub-head. Papers are not to be indexed under "Exchange Compensation" used as a head. Similarly, papers relating Land Improvement loans are to be indexed under "Advances, Land Improvement," but "Cinematograph" is not to be used under "Bioscope" (the correct head) because they are synonymous.

115. Arrangement of Several Sub-Heads: -
The same title may contain more than one Sub-head. The order in which these should be arranged is a matter in regard to which definite rules cannot be prescribed. Generally speaking, the wider and more abstract should come before the narrower and more concrete. The necessity for consistency must not be forgotten.

116. Title Proper: -
After the heads and sub-heads comes the title proper. This must be as brief as is compatible with expressing clearly the main subject of the file and some particulars of the individual matters to which it relates-so as to enable one easily to find the papers to that one may require. Brevity is merit in a title. If a title shows one at a glance like a newspaper headline, the subject of the paper, it is good title. Unnecessary length is a positive evil in title. It defeats the object in view. On the other hand, a title which is merely general is of little practical use, and if it does not distinguish a file from others relating to closely similar but not identical subjects, time may be wasted in taking out and examining several files, before what is wanted is found. The head or sub-head should never be repeated in the title proper.

117. Wording and Articulation: -
The title must consist mainly of substantives, adjectives (where indispensable) and participles. Minor parts of speech should be excluded as far as possible. That strict alphabetical arrangement may be practicable, it is essential that the title should be articulated, or broken up into members each consisting of as few words as possible, and each expressing an element in the subject matter. Each member will begin with a capital letter, which will help to determine the alphabetical order and should be separated from the members preceding and succeeding it by a bold dash. It is no use to try to put too much into a single title. The title must indicate clearly but briefly one main subject of the order.

118. Two, or more, titles when necessary - Cross References: -
If an order deals with more than one subject, two or more complete title, under different heads may be necessary. But the same title must not be repeated under more than one head, either in its entirety or partially. Instead of this, where a subject falls under more than one head, and it seems useful to index it under each head, but there is no need for distinct titles under each head, a cross-reference or cross-reference must be used, that is, the complete title will be written on one slip under one head, while on other slips, one for each of the other heads, will be written merely one of the other heads followed by “See so and so” (mentioning the former head). The same cross-reference must never be repeated.

119. Consolidation of titles when printing: -
The same words must never be printed over and over again in successive titles in the index where this can be avoided.

XV. Prevention and Checking of Arrears and Delays

120. Checking of Personal Registers: -
It is the duty of the Heads of Sections and of the Sarishtadar to check the personal registers thoroughly, and at reasonable intervals, and to take steps to ensure that no avoidable delays occur and that no paper is shelved. They must also examine from time to time the actual files in the clerk's custody. In a percentage of cases the date appearing in column 3 of the personal register should be compared with date stamp on the correspondence in the current file and with the date entered in the New Case Register. Any grave delay or irregularity will be reported to the Collector at once. If any file, whether current or disposed of, cannot be found when it is wanted the Collector should be informed at once. It is essential that the Collector should himself examine the Personal Registers at frequent intervals, preferably according to a programme.

Each Personal Register should be accompanied by a running notefile which will last for the calendar year. The same running note-file should be used for the periodical register maintained by each subject clerk. Separate running note-files should also be maintained for other special registers which are checked periodically. The Collector, Sarishtadar and Heads of Sections wil1 note their remarks at every inspection in the note-file and not in the registers. Questions asked in these notes are to be replied to within 48 hours. All the running notefiles should be withdrawn from the clerks soon after the beginning of the next calendar year and kept in the record room for future reference.

121. Arrear lists: -
On the first of every month, each subject clerk should prepare an abstract of pendency in Form No-VII on a separate sheet. The papers to be entered in it and all papers received by the previous day and remaining undisposed of. At the same time, he should prepare the detailed arrear list in Form-X. All currents which are over three months old, counting from the date on which each current was first entered in the Personal Register, should be shown in the list.

The Collector may raise this limit to six months. This list should not be written afresh each month but current which became three months old during the previous months and remain pending should be added and currents closed during the previous month should be ringed of. The list should be sent to the record-room each January after opening a list for the new year by copying all pending items.

When the subject clerk has prepared both lists, he will send them to the Superintendent, Fair-Copying Section, who will check them with the new Case Register and reconcile any discrepancies with the subject clerk.

When they are correct, he will initial both the lists, have the abstract arrear lists of the clerks copied into a list for the whole office and submit it to the Collector on the tenth of every month or, if that is a holiday of Sunday, on the first working day after the 10th. The Superintendent, Fair Copying Section, may use a clerk in his Section for reconciling discrepancies but is responsible for the accuracy of the lists as well as their prompt submission.

122. Out-going Returns: -
It is most important that periodically reports and returns should be submitted punctually. If they are delayed, dislocation is perhaps caused in several offices, and unnecessary correspondence is created. Clerks and other are too apt to regard delays in submitting periodicals as the normal thing. Generally speaking, there is no reason whatever why periodicals should not be prepared punctually, and if there is a reason the authority to whom they are due is entitled to be told of it without having to ask.

Heads of Sections will go through the periodical calendar every morning as soon as they reach office, issue advance reminders to subordinate officers whenever they consider it necessary to do so, and take other steps to ensure that every return is despatched punctually on the appointed date. If any report or return from a subordinate officer, which is required to enable the district return to be prepared is not received in time, the clerk dealing with the subject will bring the fact to the notice of the head of the Section at once.

A report should then be sent to the authority to whom the periodical is due, stating the cause of the delay and the date by which the periodical is due, stating the cause of the delay and the date by which the periodical may be expected. The date on which it should return or report submitted to the Collector, the date on which it should be despatched from the office will be noted in red ink in a conspicuous place.

123. Incoming Returns: -
The punctual receipt of incoming returns must also be insisted on. If a return is not received by 2 O’ clock on the date on which it is due, a reminder must be issued the same day. On all such reminders, the date on which the return was due will be boldly written in red ink. Whenever a periodical is submitted late by a subordinate officer, he is expected to submit with it an explanation of the delay. If he does not do so, he is invariably to be called on to explain (1) the delay; and (2) the omission to explain it in the first instance.

124. Incoming reminders: -
In regard to these see Paragraph 28 above.

125. Out-going Reminders: -
When a draft reference calling for information from outside offices or submitting case for the orders of a superior officer is put up, the Head of the section should note orders of a superior officer is put up, the Head of the section should note on the top of the draft the date when the first reminder should issue. After the draft is approved, the clerk should note the date in penicillin the last column of the Personal Register and see that the reminder issues on that date.

All reminders should be returnable. Officers while checking the Personal Registers should see that this order is carried out. If any reminder is not returned within a fortnight of its issue or if no reply is received within the time promised, the clerk should take the matter to the notice of the Collector. When a reminder is received back, the reply should be put up for perusal, the date of the next reminder being similarly noted.

Cases of inordinate delay in replying should always be brought to the notice of the Collector. In all reminders the title of the reference as well as its number and date should be noted. The dates on which reminders are sent should be entered in red ink in column-8 of the personal register. Subordinate officers should be encouraged to remind the Collector in cases where the Collector's orders are not received within a reasonable time on the reports or references sent by them, and the Sarishtadar when opening or perusing the tappal should be careful to note the receipt of such reminders and to enquire regarding the pendency which gave rise to them.

126. Revenue Business Returns: -
To enable the Board to watch the progress of business in Collector's offices, Collectors should submit to it by the 20th of the month following each half-year, statements in the form given in Appendix F. The Superintendent, Fair-Copying Section, is responsible for the preparation of this return. Similarly Divisional Officers and Treasury Deputy Collectors should submit to Collectors, by the 10th of the month following each half-year, statements in the form given in Appendix G which should be reviewed by Collectors.

A copy of the review should be submitted to the Board. From each Taluk office also including the offices of Deputy Tahsildars business returns should be submitted to the Divisional Officer who should review all the returns for his division together and send a copy of the review to the Collector. This return should be submitted to the Divisional Officer in the form given in Appendix-H by the 10th of the month following each half-year. It is, however, open to the Collector or his Divisional Officers, if they think fit, to require returns at any shorter interval from any Tahsildar or Deputy Tahsildar.

XVI. Miscellaneous

127. Andhra Pradesh Gazette: -
The Andhra Pradesh Gazette will be circulated as soon as it is received to Head of Sections, who must read it carefully and invite the attention of the Collector to anything of importance in it.

128. Correction slips: -
Correction slips must be pasted into the books to which they belong within three days of their receipt in the office. Intelligence should be exercised in doing this work. If a slip cancels or modifies a part of a Board's Standing Order or any other manual, etc., the part cancelled or superseded must be scored out, and the number of the correction slip will be noted in the margin against it. The same rule applies when one correction slip cancels or modifies a previous one. When an isolated word or an isolated sentence is introduced in a paragraph, it may sometimes be convenient to enter it in manuscript.

129. Personal files: -
(1) Personal files should be maintained for all members of the Subordinate Services.

(2) The personal files of lower division clerks of the Andhra Pradesh Ministerial Service should be made up of a few sheets of fullscape with a brown paper jacket tagged or sewn together. The period to which the remarks relate and the designation and name of the custodian officer should be clearly entered whenever an entry is made in the book. When a lower division clerk is accepted by the Collector as likely to be fit for promotion to the upper division, his personal file will be closed and sent to the Collector and thereafter the clerk's personal file will take the shape of a file of periodical reports.

(i) The periodical reports referred to above will be half year for probationers and annual for approved probationers and full members of the services.

(ii) The object of the report is to assess as nearly as possible how far each officer is physically, mentally and morally suitable for his office, whether he is able to apply intelligently the law, rules, practices and procedure applying to the work within his charge, his treatment of his subordinates, his behaviour to his superiors and colleagues in other departments, and finally his relations with the public.

(iii) The reports should be written in the from printed as Appendix "K".

(iv) While preparing the confidential reports, the following points should be borne in mind: -

(a) The reports should be written or typed by the officer himself. To facilitate identification, the name of the officer writing the report should be written in block letters below his signature and his designation also indicated.

(b) Confidential report form should never be folded.

(c) Names and designations of officers must be given in full and exactly as shown in the Civil List or Service Books.

(d) If any officer is transferred during the year/half year, the report should be prepared by the officer under whom he has served for the first part of the year/half-year and should be forwarded to the officer to whose charge he has been transferred.

(e) Expression of censure conveyed to an officer will not be recorded in the Confidential reports but a copy of the letter conveying the censure will be attached to the Officer's confidential documents. All censures should be recorded on the files but in such ca es an entry should be made as follows in the annual or half-yearly reports:

Censured for ......... in letter No ........... dated ..........

(1) As required under instruction (iv) (a) above, all reporting Officers should type out their reports so that there may be no difficulty in reading them unless they are able to write them in a bold, and legible hand.

(2) In its final stage, the personal file will have to be maintained in the form of a book with pages permanently numbered. For this purpose, a file with double tags or bands holding the sheets in form will be adequate.

(3) If the reporting officer is transferred or happens to go on leave before April in a year, he need not leave any report on the officers under him but if he is transferred after April, he should leave a report on each of the officers under him or a note to that effect to enable his successor to transcribe those remarks into the half-yearly or annual confidential report, stating the name of the author.

(4) As a rule, the out-going officers should certify in the transfer of charge report that he has so far as is possible left his remarks for incorporating in the next half-yearly or annual confidential reports and the incoming officer should certify that he received a copy of the remarks made by the outgoing officer. The first reporting officer (i.e., immediate reporting officer) will forward the report by the 7th January or 7th July every year according as the reports are annual or half-yearly, and the intermediate authorities (intermediate reporting officer) will pass on the report with his remarks to the next higher authority (Custodian Officer) within one week of its receipt by him.

(5) In the case of officers whose personal records are maintained in the shape of files of periodical reports and not in the form of books, a file of office copies of the reports sent by the immediate reporting officers and of the entries made by the custodian officer when they are also the immediate reporting officers should be maintained individually for each officer reported on. When a Government servant is transferred from the office of an immediate reporting officer, the latter should enter his remarks for the period subsequent to the last periodical report in the file of office copies and send the file of office copies to the head of the office to which the Government servant is transferred. It will be the duty of the head of such office to include a copy of those remarks along with his own remarks in the next periodical report submitted to the Custodian Officer. Before filing the reports, the Custodian Officer should enter his own remarks in cases in which he has personal knowledge of the work or conduct of the officer to whom the personal file relates.

(6) If an officer scrutinising a personal file disagrees with any entry made therein, he should record his own views in the personal file at the earliest opportunity and should abstain from merely initialling a report or from making the entry "no remarks" in it unless he accepts as correct all the entries below which his initials are placed or the entry is made. When a superior officer differs from the opinion expressed in respect of an officer by the immediate superior of the latter, the former should invariably give his reasons to substantiate the remarks made by him in the confidential reports.

(i) Expunging of adverse remarks: -

The competent authority which considers a remark which is proved t9 be wrong or unfair or without basis may expunge the same. But when the remark is only by way of opinion and a superior authority differs, both views will stay in the file.

(a) Unfavourable remarks relating to remediable defects should be communicated to the officer concerned and a note to that effect should be made in the report as well as the manner of communication. Where a report shows that an officer has made successful efforts to remedy the defects to which his attention has been drawn previously, the fact should be communicated to him so that he may know that his efforts to improve have not passed unnoticed.

(b) Only such matters need be communicated as the officer can reasonably be expected to set right. For instance, if an officer is reported to be "doing indifferent touring," it .should be perfectly possible for the officer concerned to set this defect right, if it is pointed out to him. If on the other hand, particular officer is reported to be lacking in intelligence' no useful purpose would be served by communicating this to him.

(c) While communicating an adverse remark the name of the office from whom the adverse remarks emanate should on no account be mentioned; but specific instances in support of such adverse remarks should be conveyed.

(d) The form of communication of remediable adverse remarks is of great importance and it should be such as not unduly to discourage or embitter an officer. The object should be as far as possible to improve him. Therefore, the communication should be worded very carefully and while indicating the defects, good work also should be mentioned. The best form is frequently a personal letter giving very briefly credit for what is good while instancing what requires to be corrected. The method to be employed in pointing out to an officer his particular shortcomings should also be determined by a consideration of his individual temperament so that it will be most beneficial to him.

(e) The Custodian Officers should communicate the adverse remarks to the persons concerned as soon as possible, either in whole or in part, after obtaining the approval of the superior officer. The Inspecting Officer should, however, scrutinise the personal files at the time of their inspection of the subordinate offices under their · control so as to ensure that the Custodian Officers have taken timely and adequate steps to communicate the adverse remarks to persons concerned, wherever necessary. Officers’ superior to that officer who may have occasion to scrutinise the personal files, may also direct the communication of adverse-remarks recorded in them where it has not been done already.

(f) An officer should be given an opportunity to make a representation, if he wishes to, against any unfavourable remarks made in his annual/ half-yearly confidential report and communicated to him. Such representations should be made to the authority to whom an appeal would lie against an order of censure on the officer concerned and they should be preferred within one month from the date on which the remark is communicated to the officer. Representations should be confined strictly to the merits of the question couched in proper language and should not contain any personal attacks and insinuations against the superior officers.

(g) When a representation against the adverse remarks communicated is made by the officer reported upon the Custodian Officer or the Intermediate Reporting Officer when authorised by the Custodian Officer will decide the scope of enquiry to be held on the representation having regard to the nature of the reporting officer's remarks and the contentions contained in the representation. The representation with the final remarks will be filed with the annual confidential report. The officer making the representation should be furnished with an acknowledgement that his representation has reached the appropriate authority but be will not be informed of the final decision taken thereon.

(h) Unfavourable remarks made in the confidential reports are not punishments under the statutory rules and for this reason no appeal lies against any such remarks. It is to be borne in mind that such reports express only the opinion of the officer making the report. It is, therefore, essential that all officers who have to record their remarks in the annual/half-yearly confidential reports should do so with the greatest caution and should not record any remarks lightly on the spur of the moment or based on prejudice.

130. Confidential records: -
Confidential sheets should be maintained for all members of the subordinate service. Two sets of confidential sheets will be maintained; (a) district sheets, and (b) divisional sheets -

(a) District sheets will be maintained by the Collectors for all officers in the grade of Tahsildars, Deputy Tahsildars, Stationary Sub-Magistrates, Treasurers, Taluk Head Accountants, Upper Division Clerks (including upper division clerks working as Revenue Inspectors), Huzur Head Accountant; Minor Irrigation Supervisors, Minor Irrigation Overseers and for such men in the lower division as have shown marked ability and whom he considers specially fit for promotion. They will contain a precis of the Divisional Officer's (including the Treasury Deputy Collector's) Periodical reports and the Collector's custody nor will they follow subordinates to officers to which they may be transferred.

(b) Divisional sheets will be maintained: -
(1) By the Personal Assistant to the Collector, and if there is no Personal Assistant, by the Collector, for the Huzur Sarishtadar, Huzur Head Clerk and for all clerks in the Collector's office. The Personal Assistant shall record his remarks periodically in the divisional sheets and send extracts of them to the Collector of being filed in the district sheets. Where there is no Personal Assistant, the Collector may, if so, advised entrust the maintenance of the Divisional sheets of lower division clerks in the Collector's office to the Treasury Deputy Collector or to the Huzur Sarishtadar, but should record his own remarks on their work.

(2) By the Treasury Deputy Collector for the Treasurer, Huzur Head Accountants and all Accountants and clerks in his branch.

(3) By the District Planning Officer for all the subordinates working directly under him.

(4) By Divisional Officers for all Tahsildars, Deputy Tahsildars, Stationary sub-Magistrates, Taluk Head Accountants and upper division clerks (including those working as Revenue Inspectors) and Minor Irrigation Overseers in his division and for lower division clerks working in his own office.

(5) By Tahsildars, Stationary Sub-Magistrates and Deputy Tahsildars for all the lower division clerks (including those working as Revenue Inspectors) who are subordinate to them, and when such clerks are men of marked ability, they must send extracts to the Divisional Officers for their reference in submitting their half-yearly reports to the Collector on 15th January, 15th July each year. Divisional confidential sheets will follow subordinates whenever they are transferred.

Method of maintenance: -
The records should be on loose sheets and not in the form of a bound register. The sheets should be arranged in alphabetical order and may be filed in a pad, pilot file, box file or similar manner. Entries in the confidential sheets should be made half-yearly or as frequently as may be required and whenever there is a change of the officer maintaining them and should refer specifically to the merits or demerits of the subordinate and the period to which the entry relates. The remarks should be full and clear and based on adequate grounds and not on off-hand impressions so as to enable a correct estimate to be formed of the character, ability, etc., of the subordinate concerned.

Whenever a substantive punishment is awarded, a brief reference to that also should be made. The name and designation of the officer making the entry should be appended to each entry. The sheets should be written or typed by the officers themselves and kept in their personal custody. When writing up the sheets in their custody, the Divisional Officers should make use of the periodical inspection notes of the officers inspected by them and of all inspection reports (e.g. report on the work of Revenue Inspectors) submitted to them.

They should where necessarily obtain special reports from Tahsildars, Deputy Tahsildars and Stationary Sub-Magistrates about the subordinates working under them. Twice a year on the 15th January and 15th July, the Personal Assistant to the Collector, the District Planning Officer, the Divisional Officers and the Treasury Deputy Collector should submit to the Collector copies of the entries made by them or their predecessors (during the preceding half-year for probationers and the preceding calendar year for approved probationers and full members) in the confidential sheets of all subordinates for whom the Collector maintains that district sheets to enable him to write up his periodical notes.

When a subordinate is transferred from one division to another or from one office to another his confidential sheet should be brought up to date and signed by the officer in whose custody it is and sent by registered post in a sealed cover addressed by name to the officer who is to be responsible for its custody in future. If the transfer is out of district, the sheet should be sent to the Collector who should then send it to the proper authority for custody.

The name of the subordinate should be written in bold letters at the top of the sheet and the remark should be entered as shown below: -

Sub-Collector (XY) Remarks as to post held, Character, conduct, ability

Collector (A.B)     -Do-

Sub-Collector (C.D) -Do-

and so, on the name of the author of each remark noted in Block Capitals.

Collectors and Divisional Officers should at the time· of inspecting subordinate offices scrutinise the confidential sheets to ensure that they are maintained correctly and regularly. In cases where the Collector or a Divisional Officer disagrees with an entry in a confidential sheet maintained by a subordinate officer it will not only be open to him but will also be his duty to record his own views in the sheet as well. Failure to do so at the proper time will carry the implication that the Collector or the Divisional Officer as the case may be has agreed with that entry and he will then be stopped from urging anything he may have to say against the entry at a later stage.

131. Entries relating to conduct: -
Entries relating to the conduct of members of the subordinate services will be made in their personal files referred to in paragraph 129 (1) above. No conduct sheets need be maintained in addition to the personal files. An authority awarding a punishment or commending the work of an official should, if he is himself the maintaining or reporting officers, enter the punishment or commendation the sheet to be used for the next reporting period and should, if he is not the maintaining or reporting officer, send copies of his order to the maintaining or reporting officer. The gist of these orders should be entered by the latter on receipt in the sheet to be used for the next reporting period.

When an officer is awarded any punishment, a copy of the order awarded will be furnished to him. GO.Ms.No.1679, GA. (Services-C) Department, dated 16th September, 1965-B.P. Press 6/65, dated 11th October, 1965.

133. Precautions against fire: -
The precautions against fire to be observed in public offices are given in Appendix C. The Collector must issue an office order specifying, -

(1) the officer responsible for conducting the drill prescribed in paragraph 4 of Chapter IT and Paragraph I of the Chapter V of the appendix, and

(2) the several officers responsible for seeing that the other precautions are observed in different parts of the office buildings.

134. Punching of stamps: -
The rules in B.S.O. No. 172 (6) regarding the punching of stamps must be carefully observed. Stamps must be properly punched with a circular punch so as to remove the whole of the figure head they must not be merely tom or punched with a small punch intended for tagging or filing papers as is often done. Files must on no account be sent to the record-room after disposal without first seeing that all the stamps in them have been punched with the circular punch. On receipt in the record-room the second punching with the diamond punch most invariably be made before the files are put away. The attention of all clerks and accountants is drawn to the rules in B.S.O. No. 172 Any failure to observe those rules strictly will be severely punished. The principal points to be attended to are, -

(1) When a document liable to stamp duty under the Court Fees Act is properly stamped, the adhesive stamp should be cancelled by punching out the figure head,

(2) If it is insufficiently stamped, the docurn􀁯r.t should be returned to the parties to be sufficiently stamped, and

(3) If it is stamped in excess of legal requirements, the stamps should be punched and returned to the party concerned with a certificate in the form specified in B.P.Miss.No. 15/41-R., dated 7th January, 1915 vide Form XVI in Appendix B, so as to enable him to apply for renewal or refund. If it bears two or more stamps, only so many stamps as will render it properly stamped are to be retained, beginning with those of the lowest value and the rest will be returned; but if it bears a single stamp of a higher value than is required, the stamp should be punched and retained.

135. Responsibility of clerks and Head of Sections: -
Every clerk who submits for orders a document bearing a court fee adhesive stamp, is responsible for seeing that it has been duly punched, and any clerk submitting a document bearing an unpunched adhesive stamp will be required to pay the value of the stamp. This does not, however, absolve the Heads of Sections from their responsibility for seeing that stamps are punched.

(a) Submission of files to the Collector's house or camps-Use of boxes: -

A sufficient number of tappal boxes-preferably made of steel-with good locks, are an essential part of the equipment of every Collector's office. Boxes are preferable to bags in which files are likely to be damaged. A set of keys is required so that the Collector, his Personal Assistant, if he has one, the Treasury Deputy Collector, the Sarishtadar, and such Heads of Sections as the Collector may determine (for example the officers commonly known as the Huzur Head Clerk and Huzur second Clerk, and the Magisterial Clerk) may each have one. No other officers or clerks should be allowed to have keys, and any spare keys should be in the custody of the Treasury Deputy Collector.

All files should be sent to the Collector's house or camp in locked boxes. Even in office, confidential files should be sent to him in the same way. It is useful to have two spars boxes marked "To be returned to the Collector" to enable the Collector to send files to office from his house or camp whenever necessary. As soon as either of these boxes is received in the office it is to be returned at once to the Collector empty. On no account is anything to be sent from the office to the Collector in these boxes. All the boxes should be numbered and have the words “Collector of ........” painted plainly on them.

(b) Confidential, secret and top-secret papers should be dealt with at the level of the Collector, Joint Collector, the Personal Assistant and the Huzur Sarishtadar (Revenue Assistant in Telangana districts) only. On no account should these papers be passed on to the subject clerks. The Huzur Sarishtadar (Revenue Assistant) should himself maintain a separate personal register for these papers. The noting the drafting should be done at this level only and if necessary, the assistance of the concerned Section Head may be obtained. Such files should be circulated to the Personal Assistant, the Joint Collector and the Collector or vice versa in confidential boxes the keys of which should be retained by these officers only. Care must be taken to get such papers typed by a reliable typist, preferably in the room of the Huzur Sarishtadar, Personal Assistant, Joint Collector or Collector himself. The Carbon Papers of such documents should be in the custody of the concerned officers themselves and destroyed when no longer required for further use.

The current numbers of the confidential files circulated in each box should be noted in a separate register maintained for the purpose and the acknowledgment of the personal clerk or the officer himself obtained.

The word "BOX" should be noted on the file itself along with the number of the Box. (GO.Ms.No.1968, G.A.D., dated 31st December, 1960)

137. Submission of papers at headquarters-Camp “tappal arrangement”: -
when the Collector is at headquarters, papers for orders, approval or signature should be submitted daily in one or more batches at such hours as he may prescribe. Only really urgent papers should be submitted at other times. When he is on tour, files will be sent to camp in accordance with a formal "tappal arrangement" which will be drafted by the Camp Clerk, and after approval by the Collector will be circulated to the Treasury Deputy Collector, Personal Assistant, Sarishtadar, Heads of Sections in the office, and such heads of offices in the Revenue or other departments, and non-officials as the Collector may direct.

A list of such correspondents should be complied and maintained. The tappal arrangement will show clearly where the Collector will be each day, the nearest post office to his camp and by what route and means of conveyance the tappal will be despatched to each camp. An invoice will accompany each batch of tappal sent to or from camp. The Camp Clerk in the Collector's Camps, and the Huzur Head Clerk at Headquarters will see that the invoices and their office copies correctly show the number and nature of the parcels sent. Each peon who takes charge of the tappal at any stage of the invoice after getting it signed by the peon, from whom he takes it over. The Camp Clerk in Camp and the Huzur Head Clerk at Headquarters must check the tappal with the invoices on receipt, and will return the invoices with any remarks that may be necessary (e.g., in regard to any loss, damage or delay) to headquarters or to camp as the case may be, with the next batch of tappal. The invoices when received back will be filed carefully with their office copies.

138. Arrangement of papers submitted to Collector: -
Papers submitted to the Collector must be systematically arranged. Fair-copies, routine papers (that is to say simple files, in which there are no long notes, and that involve no intricate points, short drafts, and bills), and difficult files, containing papers that call for thought and study, and study, and perhaps reference to Rules and Laws or in which there are lengthy notes, should be kept separate from each other. In each of these three classes of papers, again, Ordinary, Urgent and very urgent files must be arranged separately. The peons should be carefully instructed in these matters, and it is the business of the Camp Clerk to see that this arrangement is properly adhered to, whether at headquarters or in camp.

139. Posting List - Hearing-card: -
As often as may be necessary, and at least once a week, a consolidated list of cases to be posted will be submitted to the Collector who will fix the places and dates of hearing. The list will give the numbers of the cases, a brief note of the nature of each (Appeal, etc.) and the taluk and village to which each relates. The list will be circulated from Section to Section in alphabetical order according to the section-letters and the head of the last Section is responsible for seeing that it is submitted to the Collector without delay. After the Collector has passed orders on the list it will be returned to the Sarishtadar who will recirculate it to the Heads of Sections concerned who will note the dates and places of hearing on the files, and issue notices to the parties ate once.

The list-or a copy of it-will be sent with the least possible delay to the camp clerk, who will enter the cases against the dates to which they have been posted in the hearing-card which will be kept always on the Collector's office table, whether in camp or at headquarters. After he has done this, the camp clerk will return the list to the Sarishtadar, after initialling it. If for any reason a case that has once been posted and entered in the hearing-card has to be adjourned, it is the duty of the Head of the Section concerned to inform the camp at once, in order that he may correct the hearing-card.

140. Economy in the use of stationery: -
The utmost economy must always be exercised in the use of stationery and it is the duty of all officers, the Sarishtadar and Heads of Sections to enforce it, and to watch constantly for possibilities of saving and examples of waste. The following are some important points that should not be lost sight of: -

(1) Indents: -
These must be carefully scrutinised and cut down to the minimum. A possibility that must not be lost sight of is that stocks may have been understated. This should be carefully looked into at the periodical stock-taking prescribed by Rule 49, Stationery Manual. Not only should the stock in the stationery racks be thoroughly checked, but the clerk’s desks and almirahs in the office should be searched for concealed supplies of stationer (which term is here use to include forms). It should also be ascertained whether there are supplies of stationery which though obsolete can be made use of. As an example of the kind of abuses that the checking officer should be on the lookout for the following actual instances may be useful. In a certain office it was found that large supplies of stationery had been indented for when the actual stocks were sufficient to last for several years.

It was also found that demi official papers which had “191” printed on the line for the date had been discarded at the close of 1919, when paper with “192” printed on it was supplied. A large supply of the former perfectly fit for use, was simply left to moulder on the shelves. When certain cheaper kinds of paper were substituted for more costly kinds, the latter were treated as “obsolete” as were certain envelopes that had been deleted from the standard list as unnecessarily long, and the stock of these papers and envelopes was simply left to spoil. This kind of thing is probably much more common than anyone expects and it leads to immense waste.

(2) Enclosures: -
These must be avoided as far as possible (Paragraph 53 above). When they are necessary, they should as far as possible be typed in continuation of the main communication. Every sheet of paper, and each side of it should be fully utilised.

(3) Office copies and covering letters: -
Office copies may often be dispensed with. (See Paragraph 54 above). Covering letters must not be sent with the various “prescribed forms” of applications, returns, state􀁖ents, certificates, etc., unless for any special reason it is impossible to say all that has to be said in the form, and therefore necessary to explain or supplement it by a separate letter.

(4) Blank sheets of demi-Official etc., paper: -
Officers habitually send out demi-officials with one sheet black, or sometimes only a few words - perhaps only a signature - that could easily have been got on to the first sheet, or on the second sheet. The second sheet should never be wasted if it can be avoided. Blank sheets should be cut off demi-official letters - Incoming and out-going alike - and they should be used for writing chits, for office-copies of demi officials and so on. In future, demi-official paper will only be supplied in half-sheets, with blank continuation sheets. The blank paper should always be used for the second and subsequent sheets of a letter.

(5) Post-cards - small envelopes: -
Post-cards should be used whenever possible. This saves paper, envelope and postage. Small envelopes should be used for communications on half-sheets, and should be indented for more freely, the demand for the larger envelopes being correspondingly reduced. Half-sheets of paper should always be used for communications that are too long for a post-card (or for which a post-card would not be suitable) but which are not long enough to cover one side of a full sheet.

(6) Re - malting envelopes: -
Envelopes received with communications from other offices should be carefully cut (not tom) open and preserved. When a sufficient quantity has accumulated, they should be sent to the Government Press, to be returned and remade. The office much should also re-make envelopes in this way in his spare time.

(7) Economising envelopes in despatch: -
All letters, etc., which have to be sent to the same address on the same day should, as far as possible, be collected together, and sent in a single envelope, or in the smallest number of envelopes that will contain them all. Definite instructions in regard to this should be laid down for the guidance of the Superintendent, Fair-Copying Section, who should be provided with a set of pigeon-holes to facilitate the observance of this rule.

(8) Duplicators and duplicating paper: -
Special duplicating impression-papers should not be used unless more than 50 copies of the matter duplicated are required. In other cases, ordinarily printing-paper should be used. Care should be taken to see that copies taken on the duplicator are not spoiled and wasted, owing to defective inking of the pads, the use of bad inks, or other errors in working the machine or neglect to keep it in proper order.

(9) Registers: -
New registers should ordinarily be opened for each year. In preparing the registers care should be taken to see that the registers do not contain more forms than are likely to be necessary to contain the year's entries on the subject. Unused pages in a register need not be discarded at the end of the year. They should if at all numerous, be cut out and utilised for preparing fresh volumes.

(10) Extravagant spacing: -
This should be avoided alike in writing, in ruling, and in typing. If this is attended to, a half sheet of paper will often suffice for what would otherwise have taken a full sheet. Where such a saving will result; communications should be typed with single instead of double spaces between the lines. All notes, drafts and communications of whatever sort should be typed on both sides of the paper.

(11) Docket-sheets: -
Separate docket-sheets to communications of all sorts and the absurd and futile practice of writing dockets and addresses on the back of letters and other communications should be abolished entirely. Of course, the blank parts of such docket sheets as are in stock should be made use of [Cf. (1) above.] But no more should be indented for. For the proper place of the docket or title, see Paragraphs 50 and 51 above.

(12) Rough notes or drafts: -
These should be made on cheapest paper, the backs of old forms, etc.

(13) Drafts: -
When a number of short drafts are put up together, so far as possible they may be written in the run-on form instead of starting on a fresh sheet for each.

141. Telegrams - Economy: -
Strict economy should also be insisted on in regard to telegraphic communications. In the first place a telegram must never be sent unless it is absolutely necessary. If the issue of a telegram is due to avoidable causes, such as failure, to issue reminders or to take action in proper time or any other neglect or dilatoriness, the person at fault will be liable to censure, stoppage of increment or pay the cost of the telegram after following the prescribed procedure.

Secondly, urgent telegrams must never be sent when an ordinary telegram will suffice.

Lastly, in drafting telegrams great care must be taken to exclude all matter that is not essential, and to make the telegram as brief as is consistent with intelligibility. As an example of what is meant by excluding inessentials, it is quire unnecessary, when writing to a subordinate directing him to submit some records by return of post, to add "required for disposal of appeal posted 27th instant" and that sort of thing. Clerks are extremely prone to enter into explanations of this sort which are quite unnecessary.

142. Stock files: -
Permanent files of important orders should be maintained for ease of reference and must be carefully kept up to date. These are quite distinct from the record files referred to in Paragraphs 83 and 87. The filing referred to in these Paragraphs is a method of disposal. The filing now under consideration is a convenient method of keeping important orders of Government, the Board, or the Collector or District Magistrate which are required for frequent reference. The device is familiar, has long been in existence and needs no further explanation.

The Collector will prescribe for what subject they should be maintained. Whenever an important order is received or issued containing general instructions on one of the subjects for which a stock file is maintained, the Head of the Section that deals with that subject will see that the original order is put into the appropriate stock file and that a slip containing a reference to the page of the file where the order is to be found is at the same time placed in the record file. If an order filed in a stock file is superseded by another or when an order becomes obsolete the Head of the Section that deals with the subject will see that the order which has been superseded or the one that has become obsolete as the case may be is removed from the stock file and placed in the record file.

Each stock file will have a Table of Contents prefixed to it giving the number, date of each paper filed, its title, and the page in the file where it will be found. The pages of these files must be neatly numbered in red ink. When stock-files are put up for reference, they are not to be flagged. The passage to which reference is invited will be indicated in the margin of the note in the usual way by quoting the page of the stock file where it occurs and also the number and paragraph of the Government Orders, etc.

When a latter order modifies an earlier one the fact must be noted on an earlier order, with a reference to the page of the file where the latter order is to be found. Heads of Sections are responsible for examining these files at frequent intervals and seeing that they are kept carefully and tidily and brought up-to date.

143. Administration reports: -
The annual administration reports of various departments, with the Orders of Government or Board on them must be submitted to the Collector and District Magistrate as soon as they are received, with a brief note inviting his attention to any special instructions, strictures or comments of the Board, High Court, or Government, or to any matter of general interest in regard to which it seems desirable to issue specific orders. The jamabandi, the excise and the general state administration reports for a series a convenient size. They will be kept permanently like books of reference in the Collector's office. All other administration reports may be put into record files and destroyed after a period of ten years.

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